was noticed. During the work-up for the breast lump, a right submandibular mass was noted as well. Biopsies from the breast revealed mucinous carcinoma, and from the submandibular mass revealed follicular lymphoma. Extensive workup did not show any metastasis or HCC reappearance. Defi nitive surgeries were performed for both sites then fi nally she got the diagnosis of stage Ia non-Hodgkin ’ s lymphoma (NHL, Figure 2 ) and stage IIa breast cancer. She received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for breast cancer and chemotherapy for lymphoma. She is disease free aft er 5 years from liver surgery and 2 years from the diagnosis of lymphoma and breast cancer. A study from United States with more than 200,000 control subjects included, revealed nearly three times more NHL cases in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected group ( 2 ). Th ere are cohorts and case – control studies pointing the increased risk of lymphoma in hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients ( 3 ). A meta-analysis revealed 2.5 relative risk for NHL in HCV patients ( 4 ). Th is metaanalysis also indicated that the number of patients included in the studies and HCV prevalence in the study region aff ected the relative risks reported in individual studies. In our opinion, this diligent study should not be interpreted by the readers that HCV or HBV is not related to extrahepatic malignancies, particularly lymphoma.