Response to Comment on “A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo”

  title={Response to Comment on “A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo”},
  author={Christoph P. E. Zollikofer and Marcia S. Ponce de Le{\'o}n and Ann Margvelashvili and G Philip Rightmire and David Lordkipanidze},
  pages={360 - 360}
Schwartz et al. hold that variation among the Dmanisi skulls reflects taxic diversity. The morphological observations to support their hypothesis, however, are partly incorrect, and not calibrated against intraspecific variation in living taxa. After proper adjustment, Schwartz et al.’s data are fully compatible with the hypothesis of a single paleodeme of early Homo at Dmanisi. 
Variation among the Dmanisi hominins: Multiple taxa or one species?
It is likely that the Dmanisi hominins represent a single paleospecies of Homo displaying a pattern of sex dimorphism not seen in living hominids.
Bayesian analysis of a morphological supermatrix sheds light on controversial fossil hominin relationships
This study compiled a supermatrix of craniodental characters for all widely accepted hominin species and took advantage of recently developed Bayesian methods for building trees of serially sampled tips to test among hypotheses that have been put forward in three of the most important current debates in hom inin phylogenetics.
Spatial and temporal variation of body size among early Homo.
A Study of Species Hypotheses and Hominid Variability
Citation: Lalunio E. (2018) A Study of Species Hypotheses and Hominid Variability. Unpublished manuscript, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.
The phylogenetic status of Homo heidelbergensis – a cladistic study of Middle Pleistocene hominins
The results show that (i) the identification of a coherent H. heidelbergensis sensu stricto is not well supported and is equivocal; (ii) the hypothetical last common ancestor of H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis has more affinities with African specimens than European; and (iii) two Middle Pleistocene European fossils (Atapuerca SH5 and Steinheim) should be classified as H. Neanderthalense.
Early Homo, plasticity and the extended evolutionary synthesis
It is argued that paying closer attention to the causes and consequences of intraspecific phenotypic variation in its own right may inspire a new generation of hypotheses regarding species diversity in the Early Pleistocene and the foundations for dispersal and regional diversification in Homo erectus and its descendants.
What constitutes Homo sapiens? Morphology versus received wisdom.
  • J. Schwartz
  • Biology
    Journal of anthropological sciences = Rivista di antropologia : JASS
  • 2016
It is argued that many specimens regarded as AMS, and all those deemed AS, are not H. sapiens, and the features these AMS do share with ES suggest the existence of a sapiens clade.


Comment on “A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo”
It is concluded that the five hominid crania from Dmanisi in Georgia represent a single regional variant of Homo erectus, and dental, mandibular, and cranial morphologies all suggest taxic diversity and validate the previously named H. georgicus.
Taxonomy of the Dmanisi Crania
The recent discovery of two hominid crania from the Georgian early Pleistocene site, Dmanisi, by L. Gabunia and colleagues helps clarify the taxonomy, geological setting, and age of these fossils.
A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo
The Dmanisi sample, which now comprises five crania, provides direct evidence for wide morphological variation within and among early Homo paleodemes, implying the existence of a single evolving lineage of early Homo, with phylogeographic continuity across continents.
Palaeoanthropology: Small-brained and big-mouthed
A complete hominin cranium found at the archaeological site of Dmanisi shows remarkably primitive morphology, prompting its discoverers to propose that early forms of the genus Homo evolved as a
Another Perspective on Hominid Diversity
A surprising view is provided into the methods the author uses to recognize early hominid species diversity and the issue of methods by which fossil species are recognized.
The material basis of evolution
In this book, Goldschmidt inquires into the types of hereditary differences that produce new species. Goldschmidt used a wide range of research to formulate his own picture of evolution. Contrary to
Premolar root morphology and metric variation in Pan troglodytes verus.
The results confirm previous findings in external root form, but reveal previously undocumented variation in mandibular premolar canal number/form in this subspecies, highlighting canal form/number as an important aspect when characterizing root form.
Tooth wear and dentoalveolar remodeling are key factors of morphological variation in the Dmanisi mandibles
The data show that excessive tooth wear eventually leads to a breakdown of the normal remodeling mechanisms, resulting in dentognathic pathologies, tooth loss, and loss of masticatory function, which is unlikely to have limited the life span of early Homo.
Mandibular premolar and second molar root morphological variation in modern humans: What root number can tell us about tooth morphogenesis.
  • E. Shields
  • Medicine
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2005
A direct correlation was found between single-rooted mandibular premolar size and the predisposition to multirootedness and this correlation infers that postcanine primordia size during root formation predisposes to the development of more, or less, than the normative post canine root number.