Response of shoaling fish to the threat of aerial predation

@article{Litvak2004ResponseOS,
  title={Response of shoaling fish to the threat of aerial predation},
  author={Matthew Kenneth Litvak},
  journal={Environmental Biology of Fishes},
  year={2004},
  volume={36},
  pages={183-192}
}
  • M. Litvak
  • Published 1 February 1993
  • Environmental Science
  • Environmental Biology of Fishes
SynopsisMany species of shoaling fish are preyed upon by aerial predators. However, to date there has been no analysis of the evasive response of a group of shoaling fish to an aerial threat or attack. The response of a shoal of fish encompasses a suite of behaviors starting with a startle response. Shoals of golden shiner, Notemigonus crysoleucas, responded to the threat of aerial predation from a kingfisher model with a startle response, an increase in shoal depth, an increase in polarity… 
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