Respiratory protein–generated reactive oxygen species as an antimicrobial strategy

  title={Respiratory protein–generated reactive oxygen species as an antimicrobial strategy},
  author={Naxin Jiang and Nguan Soon Tan and Bow Ho and Jeak Ling Ding},
  journal={Nature Immunology},
The evolution of the host-pathogen relationship comprises a series of invasive-defensive tactics elicited by both participants. The stereotype is that the antimicrobial immune response requires multistep processes. Little is known about the primordial immunosurveillance system, which probably has components that directly link sensors and effectors. Here we found that the respiratory proteins of both the horseshoe crab and human were directly activated by microbial proteases and were enhanced by… 

A perspective on the role of extracellular hemoglobin on the innate immune system.

The roles of cell-free Hb in the innate immune system is reviewed, focusing on the plausible interactions among Hb, pathogens, host cell components, and innate immune cells, all of which remain to be explored with experiential detail.

Immunological properties of oxygen-transport proteins: hemoglobin, hemocyanin and hemerythrin

The true extent of oxygen-transport protein dynamics in innate immunity is evaluated, to impress upon the reader the multi-functionality of these ancient proteins on the basis of their structures.

Immunocompetent molecules and their response network in horseshoe crabs.

  • S. Kawabata
  • Biology
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2010
Horseshoe crab hemocyte selectively responds to bacterial lipopolysaccharides, which depends critically on the proteolytic activity of the LPS-responsive serine protease zymogen factor C, and coordinately effects pathogen recognition and killing, prophenoloxidase activation, complement activation and TGase-dependent wound healing.

The Iron age of host–microbe interactions

The general principles via which host adaptive responses regulating iron (Fe) metabolism impact on resistance and disease tolerance to infection are explored.

Role of hemoglobin from blood clam Scapharca kagoshimensis beyond oxygen transport.

The Nrf2 pathway is required for intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii in activated macrophages

It is indicated that the Nrf2 signalling pathway is necessary for maintaining redox homeostasis in activated RAW264.7 cells and the NRF2/Keap1 pathway may be targeted to prevent and treat toxoplasmosis.



Antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: concepts and controversies

  • F. Fang
  • Biology
    Nature Reviews Microbiology
  • 2004
A review of the regulation, generation and actions of these molecular mediators, as well as their roles in resisting infection, updates the reader on these concepts and the topical questions in the field.

The prophenoloxidase‐activating system in invertebrates

A major innate defense system in invertebrates is the melanization of pathogens and damaged tissues, which is controlled by the enzyme phenoloxidase that in turn is regulated in a highly elaborate manner for avoiding unnecessary production of highly toxic and reactive compounds.

The molecular basis of innate immunity in the horseshoe crab.

  • S. Iwanaga
  • Biology
    Current opinion in immunology
  • 2002

C-reactive protein: a predominant LPS-binding acute phase protein responsive to Pseudomonas infection

The investigation of CRP response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa unveiled a robust innate immune system in the horseshoe crab, which displays rapid suppression of a dosage of 106 CFU of bacteria in the first hour of infection and effected complete clearance of the pathogen by 3 days.

Antimicrobial peptides in mammalian and insect host defence.

A Link between Blood Coagulation and Prophenol Oxidase Activation in Arthropod Host Defense*

It is shown that the coagulation cascade of the horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus is linked to prophenol oxidase activation, with the oxygen carrier hemocyanin functioning as a substitute for prophenl oxidase.

Quorum sensing and the regulation of virulence gene expression in pathogenic bacteria.

Interference with quorum sensing represents a promising strategy for the therapeutic or prophylactic control of infection as well as intrinsic pharmacological and immunomodulatory activities such that they may function as virulence determinants per se.

A serine protease zymogen functions as a pattern-recognition receptor for lipopolysaccharides.

It is concluded that the serine protease zymogen on the hemocyte surface functions as a pattern-recognition protein for LPS, and the proteolytic activity of factor C is both necessary and sufficient to trigger exocytosis through a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein-mediating signaling pathway.

Diversity in lectins enables immune recognition and differentiation of wide spectrum of pathogens.

It is postulate that different populations of plasma lectins act in collaboration in frontline innate immune defense against disparate pathogens and appears to evolutionarily compensate for the lack of acquired immunity.

Viral exploitation and subversion of the immune system through chemokine mimicry

  • P. Murphy
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Nature Immunology
  • 2001
The study of viral mimicry of chemokines and chemokine receptors is providing important new concepts in viral immunopathogenesis, new anti-inflammatory drug leads and new targets and concepts for antiviral drug and vaccine development.