Respiratory protection against airborne nanoparticles: a review

  title={Respiratory protection against airborne nanoparticles: a review},
  author={R. Shaffer and Samy Rengasamy},
  journal={Journal of Nanoparticle Research},
As a precautionary measure, it is often recommended that workers take steps to reduce their exposure to airborne nanoparticles through the use of respiratory protective devices. The purpose of this study was to provide a review and analysis of the research literature and current recommendations on respirators used for protection against nanoparticles. Key research findings were that studies with particles as small as 4 nm have shown that conventional single-fiber filtration theory can be used… 
Effectiveness of N95 respirators for nanoparticle exposure control (2000–2016): a systematic review and meta-analysis
Workers are increasingly exposed to nanoparticles, mostly via inhalation. Respiratory protection is recommended as an additional control measure. Particulate respirators are certified for protection
Measurement of protection factor of respiratory protective devices toward nanoparticles.
The measurements indicate that when the leaks are negligible at the interface mask/head, the efficiency of RPD is greater for nanoparticles, and for major leaks, the device's protection factor changes independently of the size of the particles.
Total inward leakage of nanoparticles through filtering facepiece respirators.
The data indicate that higher concentration of nanoparticles could occur inside the breathing zone of respirators in workplaces where nanoparticles in the MPPS range are present, when leakage is minimal compared to filter penetration.
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The filtration of airborne nanoparticles is an important control technique as the environmental, health, and safety impacts of nanomaterials grow. A review of the literature shows that significant
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Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations
Toward Standardized Test Methods to Determine the Effectiveness of Filtration Media against Airborne Nanoparticles
The filtration of airborne nanoparticles is an important control technique as the environmental, health and safety impacts of nanomaterials grow. A review of the literature shows that significant
A Review of Workplace Risk Management Measures for Nanomaterials to Mitigate Inhalation and Dermal Exposure
RMM efficacy data for nanomaterials are limited and often inconclusive to propose effectiveness values, and adapted efficacy values are proposed for various RMM sub-categories.
Assessing the potential exposure risk and control for airborne titanium dioxide and carbon black nanoparticles in the workplace
  • M. Ling, C. Chio, C. Liao
  • Medicine
    Environmental science and pollution research international
  • 2011
The present risk management control strategy suggests that the most effective way to reduce airborne NPs is to incorporate the use of a ventilating system combined with N95 respirator protection, which will enable the concentrations of TiO2-NPs and CB-Nps to be reduced to acceptable exposure levels.
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A conceptual framework for occupational risk management as applied to engineered nanomaterials is reviewed and an associated approach for controlling exposures in the presence of uncertainty is described.
Manikin-based performance evaluation of N95 filtering-facepiece respirators challenged with nanoparticles.
This study has confirmed that the neutralization of particles is a crucial element in evaluating the efficiency of a respirator, and concluded that for respirators utilizing mechanical filters, the peak penetration indeed occurs at the particle diameter of approximately 300 nm; however, for pre-charged fiber filters, which are commonly used for N95 respirators, thepeak shifts toward nano-sizes.
What Does Respirator Certification Tell Us About Filtration of Ultrafine Particles?
The authors conclude that the existing NIOSH certification protocol may not represent a worst-case assessment for electret filters because it has limited ability to determine the contribution of ultrafine aerosols, which include the most penetrating particle size for Electret filters.
Nanoparticle Filtration Performance of Commercially Available Dust Masks.
The results of this study show that dust masks frequently do not provide filtration performance equivalent to that of NIOSH certified devices and users of dust masks should be cautioned against using them for protection against particulates in the nano- or ultrafine size ranges.
N95 and P100 Respirator Filter Efficiency Under High Constant and Cyclic Flow
Although penetration increased at the high flow conditions, the MPPS was relatively unaffected by flow, and the flows equivalent to cyclic inhalation mean and peak flows best approximated the penetration measurements of the corresponding cyclic flows.
Performance of dust respirators with facial seal leaks: I. Experimental.
  • W. Hinds, G. Kraske
  • Environmental Science
    American Industrial Hygiene Association journal
  • 1987
The ability of representative half-mask and single-use respirators with facial seal leaks to provide protection against aerosols was evaluated by experimental measurement and it was found that the aerosol-size distribution inside a respirator will nearly always be significantly different from that outside the respirator.
Filter Performance of N99 and N95 Facepiece Respirators Against Viruses and Ultrafine Particles
In inert NaCl aerosols may generally be appropriate for modeling filter penetration of similarly sized virions, and the filter quality factor was found suitable for making relative performance comparisons.
Comparison of nanoparticle filtration performance of NIOSH-approved and CE-marked particulate filtering facepiece respirators.
Particle penetration data obtained in this study showed that the eight models of NIOSH-approved N95 and P100 and CE-marked FFP2 and FFP3 respirator models provided expected levels of laboratory filtration performance against nanoparticles.
Filtration Performance of NIOSH-Approved N95 and P100 Filtering Facepiece Respirators Against 4 to 30 Nanometer-Size Nanoparticles
The filtration performance of NIOSH-approved N95 and P100 filtering facepiece respirators (FFR) against six different monodisperse silver aerosol particles in the range of 4–30 nm diameter supports previous studies that indicateNIOSH- approved air-purifying respirators provide expected levels of filtrations protection against nanoparticles.
Filtration efficiency of a fibrous filter for nanoparticles
The filtration efficiency for nanoparticles down to 1 nm in size through glass fibrous filters was measured using an improved PSM-CNC system. In addition, the effects of relative humidity and