Respiratory chain enzymes in muscle of endurance athletes: effect of L-carnitine.

@article{Huertas1992RespiratoryCE,
  title={Respiratory chain enzymes in muscle of endurance athletes: effect of L-carnitine.},
  author={Rosa Huertas and Yolanda Campos and Enrique D{\'i}az and Jes{\'u}s Esteban and L Vechietti and Giuseppe Montanari and Stefania D'Iddio and Marco Corsi and Joaqu{\'i}n Arenas},
  journal={Biochemical and biophysical research communications},
  year={1992},
  volume={188 1},
  pages={
          102-7
        }
}

Investigation of carbonic anhydrase levels under exercise and hyperthermic stress in rats given L-carnitine

The results of this study indicated that CA inhibition significantly decreased at L-carnitine + Exercise group 4 (at 28°C) and Exercise group 1 (at 38°C), and it may be considered that L- c Carnitine does not have a protective role in exercise done under hyperthermic conditions.

l-Carnitine Supplementation in Recovery after Exercise

It is demonstrated that l-carnitine alleviates muscle injury and reduces markers of cellular damage and free radical formation accompanied by attenuation of muscle soreness, thereby reducing hypoxia-induced cellular and biochemical disruptions.

Impaired Exercise Performance and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Function in Rats with Secondary Carnitine Deficiency

THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

Metabolic functions of L-carnitine and its effects as feed additive in horses. A review.

It appears that acute exercise does not have a marked effect on the content of total carnitine in skeletal muscle whereas training seems to elevate its total concentration in the middle gluteal muscle of 3 to 6 year old horses and to reduce variation of its concentration compared to age-matched untrained horses.

Carnitine and Physical Exercise

There is currently no scientific basis for healthy individuals or athletes to use carnitine supplementation to improve exercise performance, and critical reflections and current scientific-based knowledge are important to understand the implications of reduced or increased carnitines concentrations in vivo.

Carnitine in Human Muscle Bioenergetics: Can Carnitine Supplementation Improve Physical Exercise?

The role of l-carnitine in muscle energetics and the main causes that led to conflicting data on the use of l/s carnitine as a supplement are described.

Effect of carnitine supplementation on mitochondrial enzymes in liver and skeletal muscle of rat after dietary lipid manipulation and physical activity.

Results of this study show a significant health promoting effects of carnitine supplementation which could be further augmented by regular exercise.

References

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Carnitine in muscle, serum, and urine of nonprofessional athletes: Effects of physical exercise, training, and L‐carnitine administration

The data suggest that training in endurance athletes, and to a lesser extent, in sprinters, is associated with a decrease in free and total carnitine of muscle, due to an increased overflow of short‐chain carnitines esters in urine.

Carnitine stimulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) in isolated human skeletal muscle mitochondria

The stimulatory effect of carnitine on PDHC activity in human mitochondria is mediated by the modulation of the intramitochondrial acetylCoA/CoASH ratio.

Reduced transcription of mitochondrial DNA in the senescent rat. Tissue dependence and effect of L-carnitine.

The results suggest that the age-dependent impairment of both heavy-strand mitochondrial DNA transcription units is related to altered environmental conditions which acetyl-L-carnitine, a substance which acts by stimulating, directly or indirectly, the energy metabolism, is able to remove.

Propionylcarnitine excretion in propionic and methylmalonic acidurias: a cause of carnitine deficiency.

Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences.

  • J. HolloszyE. Coyle
  • Biology
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology
  • 1984
The major metabolic consequences of the adaptations of muscle to endurance exercise are a slower utilization of muscle glycogen and blood glucose, a greater reliance on fat oxidation, and less lactate production during exercise of a given intensity.

Cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in leigh syndrome

The theory that COX deficiency is an important cause of Leigh syndrome is confirmed, with essentially normal amounts of cross‐reacting enzyme protein in various tissues from different patients.

Carnitine deficiency, organic acidemias, and Reye's syndrome

Relative carnitine deficiency is important in the pathophysiology of several disorders, including Reye's syndrome and organic acidemias, and Carnitine replacement therapy is safe and induces excretion of toxic acyl groups in the urine.