Integration of phytochemicals and phytotherapy into cancer precision medicine
Data obtained from multiple sources indicate that no single mechanism can explain the drug resistance and the poor prognosis of patients with lung cancer. The resistance-related proteins P-glycoprotein, glutathione-dependent enzymes, topoisomerase II, metallothioneins, O-6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase, thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase and heat shock proteins have been found in lung carcinomas, but these alone cannot explain the drug-resistant phenotype. Cell cycle-related proteins, angiogenic factors, protooncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes also play a role in the phenotype that is resistant lung cancer. A key future challenge involves determining the relative quantitative contributions of each of these mechanisms to overall resistance.