The specific aims of this study were to quantify the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training, as well as a single session of resistance exercise on lipids and lipoproteins in obese, postmenopausal women. 21 obese, postmenopausal women, not on hormone replacement therapy (age=65.9 ± 0.5 yr; BMI=32.7 ± 0.8 kg/m(2)), were randomly assigned to control (n=12) and exercise (n=9) groups matched for age and BMI. For 12 weeks, 3 days/week, the exercise group performed 10 whole body resistance exercises (3 sets at 8-RM). Fasting (10 h) blood samples were collected immediately prior to and 24 h after the first and last exercise and control session. Serum was assayed for concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, HDL-C, HDL 2-C, HDL 3-C, non-HDL-C and TC:HDL and LDL:HDL ratios. The exercise group exhibited a significant (P<0.01) improvement in muscular strength, but no change in BMI, body mass or body composition post-training. Total cholesterol, LDL-C and non-HDL-C were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the exercise compared to the control group following the 12 weeks of resistance training. Whole body resistance training provides obese, postmenopausal women a non-pharmacological approach for the reduction of lipid and lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations.