Susceptibility to etravirine (ETR), an expanded-spectrum nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), is dependent on the type and number of NNRTI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs). Studies have shown that some HIV-1 subtypes may have natural polymorphisms described as ETR RAMs. This study addresses the prevalence of ETR RAMs in treatment-naïve patients infected with HIV-1 non-B subtypes and its potential impact on ETR susceptibility. The prevalence of ETR RAMs in 726 antiretroviral-naïve patients infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes was studied. ETR genotypic resistance was interpreted according to Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA and Stanford algorithms. NNRTI phenotypic susceptibilities of samples with at least one ETR RAM were measured. Overall, 75 (10.3%) of 726 sequences harbored at least one ETR RAM: sequences from 72 patients (10%) each had one ETR RAM, and sequences from 3 patients (0.4%) each had two ETR RAMs (V90I and Y181C in one case and V90I and A98G in two cases). None of the viruses had three or more ETR RAMs, and none were consequently classified as resistant to ETR. All sequences with two ETR RAMs belonged to subtype CRF02_AG. The presence of one ETR RAM was statistically more frequent in subtype CRF02_AG than in other non-B subtypes (P=0.004). Three new mutation profiles (E138A and V179I, Y181C and H221Y, and V90I and Y181C) showing decreased ETR phenotypic susceptibility were identified. In conclusion, although the prevalence of ETR RAMs in treatment-naïve patients infected with non-B HIV-1 subtypes was 10%, in most cases this had no significant impact on ETR susceptibility. However, the transmission of drug-resistant viruses with Y181C in a non-B genetic background has a potential for impact on ETR susceptibility.