Resistance and aerobic training in older men: effects on VO2peak and the capillary supply to skeletal muscle.

@article{Hepple1997ResistanceAA,
  title={Resistance and aerobic training in older men: effects on VO2peak and the capillary supply to skeletal muscle.},
  author={Russell T. Hepple and S. L. M. Mackinnon and Jack M. Goodman and S G Thomas and Michael J. Plyley},
  journal={Journal of applied physiology},
  year={1997},
  volume={82 4},
  pages={
          1305-10
        }
}
Both aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) may increase aerobic power (VO2peak) in the older population; however, the role of changes in the capillary supply in this response has not been evaluated. Twenty healthy men (age 65-74 yr) engaged in either 9 wk of lower body RT followed by 9 wk of AT on a cycle ergometer (RT-->AT group) or 18 wk of AT on a cycle ergometer (AT-->AT group). RT was performed three times per week and consisted of three sets of four exercises at 6-12… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Time course and mechanisms of adaptations in cardiorespiratory fitness with endurance training in older and young men.

With short-term training O and Y significantly increased their Vo(2 max); however, the proportion of Vo( 2 max) increase explained by Q(max) and maximal a-vO(2 diff) throughout training showed a different pattern by age group.

Aerobic and resistance training in coronary disease: single versus multiple sets.

The data support the use of multiple set RT for patients desiring an increased RT stimulus which may further augment parameters that affect VO2peak, VAT, lower body endurance, and muscle mass in a cardiac population.

Effects of Strength Training on Submaximal and Maximal Endurance Performance Capacity in Middle‐Aged and Older Men

The relationships found in this study between various indices of cycling testing and serum hormone concentrations after strength training suggest that maximal incremental cycling might be used as an additional test to detect anabolic-catabolic responses to prolonged strength training in middle-aged and older men.

Adaptations to endurance training in the healthy elderly: arm cranking versus leg cycling

Aerobic training brought about with different muscle masses, produce similar improvements in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, which suggests peripheral adaptations to training.

Once weekly combined resistance and cardiovascular training in healthy older men.

Prolonged combined resistance and endurance training in older men seemed to lead to similar gains in muscle mass, maximal strength, and power of the legs as resistance training alone and tosimilar gains in maximal peak power output measured in an incremental cycling test as endurance training alone.

Can aerobic training improve muscle strength and power in older men?

For the older population cycle ergometry provides the means to not only increase aerobic fitness but also increase leg strength and power and upper leg muscle mass, but gains are quickly lost with detraining.

Early‐Phase Adaptations of Traditional‐Speed vs. Superslow Resistance Training on Strength and Aerobic Capacity in Sedentary Individuals

Both strength training protocols produced a significant improvement in strength during a 10-week training period, but the TR protocol produced better gains in the absence of changes in percentage of body fat, body mass index, lean body mass, and body weight.

Adaptations in capillarization and citrate synthase activity in response to endurance training in older and young men.

This study showed that both O and Y undertaking similar endurance training displayed capillary angiogenesis and improved mitochondrial respiratory capacity.

Resistance training preserves high-intensity interval training induced improvements in skeletal muscle capillarization of healthy old men: a randomized controlled trial

RT and HIIT are valid training modalities for older men to improve skeletal muscle vascularization and capillarization and oxidative enzyme activity and RT effectively preserved HIIT-induced adaptations of these parameters.

Effect of exercise training on peak aerobic power, left ventricular morphology, and muscle strength in healthy older women.

Twelve weeks of ST or COMT are as effective as 12 weeks of AT for increasing relative VO2peak, however, ST and COMt are more effective than AT for improving overall muscle strength.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 33 REFERENCES

Strength training and determinants of VO2max in older men.

The data suggest that the small increase in leg cycle VO2max in older men may be due to adaptations in oxidative capacity and increased mass of the strength-trained muscles.

Effects of gender, age, and fitness level on response of VO2max to training in 60-71 yr olds.

In healthy people aged 60-71 yr, VO2max adapts to endurance exercise training to the same relative extent as in young people, and this adaptation is independent of gender, age, and initial level of fitness.

Skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance training in 60- to 70-yr-old men and women.

23 healthy older men and women before and after they had trained by walking/jogging at 80% of maximal heart rate for 45 min/day 4 days/wk for 9-12 mo resulted in a 23% increase in maximal O2 consumption.

Quantitating the capillary supply and the response to resistance training in older men

Results indicate a significant increase in the capillary supply relative to the perimeter, but not the cross-sectional area, of the muscle fibres following RT in older men, and that C:Fi/P is strongly correlated to the V.O2,peak in this population.

Exercise training below and above the lactate threshold in the elderly.

The effects of training at intensities below and above the lactate threshold on parameters of aerobic function in elderly subjects and training improved the LT significantly and equally for both LI and HI.

High-intensity endurance training in 20- to 30- and 60- to 70-yr-old healthy men.

In older subjects, increases in aerobic power after high-intensity endurance training are at least as large as in younger subjects and are associated with increases in vascular conductance, maximal cardiac output, and stroke volume.

Maximal aerobic power: neuromuscular and metabolic considerations.

This review examines the peripheral or muscular processes that may act as determinants of VO2max using progressive cycling exercise and electromyographic techniques and whether it is the availability of oxygen that is limiting to the mitochondria or an inability to use the available oxygen.

Contribution of body composition and physical activity to age-related decline in peak VO2 in men and women.

It was found that the addition of leisure time physical activity (independent of body composition) to the regression model further attenuated the rate of decline in males but did not alter the age-related decline in peak VO2 in females.

Increased Skeletal Muscle Capillary Density Precedes Diabetes Development in Men With Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A 15-Year Follow-Up

Findings may suggest that the increased circulating insulin concentrations in IGT subjects have a capillary proliferative effect, perhaps to compensate for reduced capillary insulin diffusion and metabolic capacity of the muscle.

Limitations to aerobic performance in mammals: interaction of structure and demand.

It is suggested that the adaptable structures upstream to the muscle mitochondria are built and maintained at a cost-benefit maximum ("structural efficiency") in all species, unlike the concept of optimal structural design or symmorphosis.