Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems

  title={Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems},
  author={Crawford S. Holling},
  journal={Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics},
  • C. S. Holling
  • Published 1 November 1973
  • Psychology
  • Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics
Individuals die, populations disappear, and species become extinct. That is one view of the world. But another view of the world concentrates not so much on presence or absence as upon the numbers of organisms and the degree of constancy of their numbers. These are two very different ways of viewing the behavior of systems and the usefulness of the view depends very much on the properties of the system concerned. If we are examining a particular device designed by the engineer to perform… 

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