Residues of Diclofenac in Tissues of Vultures in India: A Post-ban Scenario

  title={Residues of Diclofenac in Tissues of Vultures in India: A Post-ban Scenario},
  author={Kanthan Nambirajan and Subramanian Muralidharan and Aditya Roy and Subbian Manonmani},
  journal={Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology},
Populations of three resident Gyps species (Indian white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis, Indian vulture Gyps indicus, and Slender-billed vulture Gyps tenuirostris) in India have decreased by more than 90% since mid 1990s, and they continue to decline. Experimental studies showed the mortality of vultures to be due to renal failure caused by diclofenac, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. India, Pakistan, and Nepal banned the veterinary usage of diclofenac in 2006 to prevent further decline… 
Nimesulide poisoning in white-rumped vulture Gyps bengalensis in Gujarat, India
It is recommended that nimesulide should be banned by the government to conserve white-rumped vulture in the Indian subcontinent and an effective system is recommended to be put in place to collect the tissues of dead vultures for toxicological investigations and eventual conservation of the critically endangered species.
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS) and their Effect on Old World Vultures: A Scoping Review
There was substantial evidence that diclofenac can lead to mortality in Old World vultures, and there was also some evidence of mortality and clinical signs caused by carprofen, ketoprofen, and flunixin meglumine.
Heavy metal exposure and behavioral assessment of vultures in a captive environment
Heavy metals are a heterogeneous group of metals that can cause detrimental biological disruptions in vultures. Heavy metals play a threatening role and affect vulture populations around the globe.
Impact of Diclofenac a Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Veterinary Pharmaceutical Drug on Vultures
This research presents a novel and scalable approach called “Smart Animal Health and Productions”, which aims to provide real-time information about the immune systems of animals and its applications in the field of veterinary medicine.
The Distribution, Nesting Habits and Status of Threatened Vulture Species in Protected Areas of Central India
Protected Area (PA) establishment is one of the commoner strategies for wildlife conservation, but the effectiveness of these developments is rarely evaluated in terms of species’ performance. This
Exploring cytotoxic drugs residues in hospital effluents: a narrative review
According to the results of the present study, cytotoxic drugs residues are detected in the effluents of oncology wards of the investigated hospitals, suggesting establishment of strict rules and regulations, provision of cytotoxicity waste disposal and removal for the purpose of inactivating cytot toxic drugs in hospital effluent prior to entrance of the effluent to the sewage treatment systems is mandatory.
The use of Bacillus subtilis bacteria as a tool to assess the toxicity of pharmaceuticals in the environment
Assessment of the acute and chronic effects of seven pharmaceuticals on Bacillus subtilis bacteria indicates that wastewater from hospitals can likely inhibit biological process of breaking waste in the wastewater treatment plants, and inhibited bacterial growth at 50 μg/ml.
LC-MS/MS Determination of 21 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Residues in Animal Milk and Muscles
The presented procedure combines experience from two LC-MS/MS methods previously developed by the team for NSAIDs determination in meat and milk to prove that the method is suitable for confirmatory purposes in milk and muscle.
Activated Graphene Oxide-Calcium Alginate Beads for Adsorption of Methylene Blue and Pharmaceuticals
The remarkable adsorption capacity of graphene derived materials has prompted their examination in composite materials suitable for deployment in treatment of contaminated waters. In this study,


Diclofenac is toxic to the Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis
Experimental testing has established that diclofenac is toxic to four species of vultures in the genus Gyps, but information on the toxicity of dicL ofenac to other members of the genus is lacking.
Continuing mortality of vultures in India associated with illegal veterinary use of diclofenac and a potential threat from nimesulide
The proportion of Gyps vultures found dead in the wild in India showed a modest and non-significant decline since the ban on the veterinary use of diclofenac, and Veterinary use of nimesulide is a potential threat to the recovery of vulture populations.
Diclofenac Residues in Blood Plasma and Tissues of Vultures Collected from Ahmedabad, India
Although use of diclofenac for treating cattle has been banned in India, regular monitoring is recommended to assess the effectiveness of the ban on the drug in support of the conservation of these species.
Analysis of nine NSAIDs in ungulate tissues available to critically endangered vultures in India.
If wild Gyps on the Indian subcontinent are to survive, diclofenac bans must be completely effective, and NSAIDs that replace it within the veterinary drug market must be of low toxicity toward Gyps and other scavenging birds.
Safety of meloxicam to critically endangered Gyps vultures and other scavenging birds in India
It is recommended that meloxicam be introduced as rapidly as possible across the Indian sub‐continent as an alternative to diclofenac.
Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan
Results are provided that directly correlate residues of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac with renal failure and renal failure in the Oriental white-backed vulture (OWBV) and it is proposed that residues of veterinary diclotenac are responsible for the OWBV decline.
Removing the Threat of Diclofenac to Critically Endangered Asian Vultures
It is concluded that meloxicam is of low toxicity toGyps vultures and that its use in place of diclofenac would reduce vulture mortality substantially in the Indian subcontinent.
Collapse of Asian vulture populations: risk of mortality from residues of the veterinary drug diclofenac in carcasses of treated cattle
The tissues of cattle treated with diclofenac are a hazard to wild vultures that feed on an animal that dies within a few days after treatment, and withdrawal of the drug from veterinary use on animals whose carcasses may become available to scavenging vulture is recommended.
Effectiveness of Action in India to Reduce Exposure of Gyps Vultures to the Toxic Veterinary Drug Diclofenac
Modelling of the impact of this reduction in diclofenac on the expected rate of decline of the oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in India indicates that the decline rate has decreased to 40% of the rate before the ban, but is still likely to be rapid.