Residual Effects of Hypnotics

  title={Residual Effects of Hypnotics},
  author={Annemiek Vermeeren},
  journal={CNS Drugs},
The risk of ‘hangover’ effects, e.g. residual daytime sleepiness and impairment of psychomotor and cognitive functioning the day after bedtime administration, is one of the main problems associated with the use of hypnotics. However, the severity and duration of these effects varies considerably between hypnotics and is strongly dependent on the dose administered.This article reviews epidemiological evidence on the effect of hypnotics on patients’ risk for accidents such as traffic accidents… 
Effects of Hypnotics on Sleep and Quality of Life in Insomnia
Limited evidence is provided that newer formulations and different treatment schedules, including intermittent use, can sustain hypnotic efficacy with the Z drugs over longer periods, enhancing QOL and waking function, and without rebound insomnia following withdrawal.
7 of Hypnotics on Sleep and Quality of Life in Insomnia
There is now limited evidence that newer formulations and different treatment schedules can sustain hypnotic efficacy with the Z drugs over longer periods, enhancing QOL and waking function, and without rebound insomnia following withdrawal.
Temazepam 20 mg improves sleep without residual effects in elderly drivers.
The aim of this study was to determine the residual effects of temazepam 20 mg and zopiclone 7.5 mg on actual driving performance in healthy elderly subjects, using the same tests and procedures as in a previous study with young volunteers.
Effects of the use of hypnotics on cognition.
Residual effects of flunitrazepam, zopiclone and zolpidem in elderly drivers submitted to simulated driving accidents
Zopiclone and zolpidem have thus rapidly become very frequently prescribed hypnotics and are among the five most frequently used in Europe and become a challenge in the context of road safety.
Residual Effects of Short Half-life Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics
The popularity of short half-life nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics, zolpidem and zopiclone, is probably due to a growing awareness among patients and prescribing physicians of the disadvantages of benzodiazepines, in particular the development of tolerance and the potential for addiction.
The effects of acute treatment with ramelteon, triazolam, and placebo on driving performance, cognitive function, and equilibrium function in healthy volunteers
Ramelteon may affect road-tracking performance, visual attention and/or psychomotor speed measured by Trail-Making Test part A, and body balance in acute dosing, and Physicians should consider risks and benefits when prescribing both drugs.
The residual effects of N-desmethyldiazepam in patients
After the week of treatment, the benzodiazepine groups were achieving the best quality of self-rated sleep with fewest subjective feelings of hang-over, however, the higher dose of N-desmethyldiazepam was associated with less improvement, i.e., some impairment relative to placebo was detected.
Comparison of the effect of lemborexant and other insomnia treatments on driving performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Zopiclone, flunitrazepam, and ramelteon were associated with impaired driving performance, similar to driving under the influence of alcohol, and lemborexant had no statistically or clinically significant effect on driving performance.


Hypnotics and behavior.
The use of sedative/hypnotic medication and its correlation with falling down in the hospital.
The relationship between reports of falling down and the administration of sedative/hypnotics or other psychotropic drugs was examined during a 1-year period in a 1,000-bed teaching hospital. It was
Hypnotic action and residual effects of a single bedtime dose of temazepam.
The results indicate that temazepam 20 mg in young adults has a reliable hypnotic effect without significant residual sequelae and no evidence for rebound insomnia in the 3 nights following drug intake.
Zopiclone. An update of its pharmacology, clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of insomnia.
Although the available data on rebound insomnia and dependence liability are encouraging, potential differences between zopiclone and the benzodiazepines in these respects may have little clinical relevance in the context of short term intermittent use of hypnotics, as it currently recommended.
A comparison of temazepam and flurazepam in terms of sleep quality and residual changes in activation and performance.
Large significant, residual effects of flurazepam were seen on activation and performance (correct detections and reaction times) while temazepams had little effect on activationand produced only a small significant residual impairment of reaction times.
Pharmacodynamic profile of Zaleplon, a new non‐benzodiazepine hypnotic agent
It is shown that zaleplon 10 mg has little or no residual effect when administered in the middle of the night, as late as 1 h before waking, and is devoid of impairment of driving abilities as assessed by actual driving 4’h after dose administration.
Residual effect of single and repeated doses of midazolam and nitrazepam in relation to their plasma concentrations
Hypnotic effect, judged by the classical sleep variables, showed that the drugs were more or less equal and were superior to placebo, and impairment induced by both drugs was revealed, but, in the midazolam group the effect subsided during the trial period.
Effect of zopiclone and temazepam on sleep EEG parameters, psychomotor and memory functions in healthy elderly volunteers
Zopiclone and temazepam can be considered as effective hypnotics in elderly subjects when administered in that dosage and the superiority of zopiclones on sleep architecture may be related to a more specific action of zopylone at the GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor complex.
Management of insomnia.
  • C. Kirkwood
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association
  • 1999
Residual effects of hypnotics
Both drugs were effective hypnotics according to the ratings but butobarbitone had more subjective “hangover” the following morning but the evoked response was affected most by 10 mg nitrazepam.