Resetting central and peripheral circadian oscillators in transgenic rats.

  title={Resetting central and peripheral circadian oscillators in transgenic rats.},
  author={Shin Yamazaki and Rika Numano and Michikazu Abe and Akiko Hida and Ri‐ichi Takahashi and Masatsugu Ueda and Gene D. Block and Yoshiyuki Sakaki and Michael Menaker and Hajime Tei},
  volume={288 5466},
In multicellular organisms, circadian oscillators are organized into multitissue systems which function as biological clocks that regulate the activities of the organism in relation to environmental cycles and provide an internal temporal framework. To investigate the organization of a mammalian circadian system, we constructed a transgenic rat line in which luciferase is rhythmically expressed under the control of the mouse Per1 promoter. Light emission from cultured suprachiasmatic nuclei… 

Peripheral circadian oscillators and their rhythmic regulation.

The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent findings on functioning of these extra-SCN oscillators and the mechanisms the SCN controls peripheral oscillators.

Entrainment of the circadian clock in the liver by feeding.

It is demonstrated that feeding cycles can entrain the liver independently of the SCN and the light cycle, and the need to reexamine the mammalian circadian hierarchy is suggested, raising the possibility that peripheral circadian oscillators like those in the liver may be coupled to theSCN primarily through rhythmic behavior, such as feeding.

Clock-dependent and system-driven oscillators interact in the suprachiasmatic nuclei to pace mammalian circadian rhythms

It is shown that lactating mice, which exhibit dampened systemic rhythms, possess normal molecular clockwork but impaired rhythms in both heat shock response gene expression and electrophysiological output in their SCN, which suggests that body rhythms regulate SCN activity downstream of the clock.

In Vivo Monitoring of Peripheral Circadian Clocks in the Mouse

Distinct Functions of Period2 and Period3 in the Mouse Circadian System Revealed by In Vitro Analysis

Assessment of wheel-running activity and Per1-promoter-driven luciferase expression in cultured SCN, pituitary, and lung explants from Per2−/− and Per3+/− mice congenic with the C57BL/6J strain suggests that the function of each Per gene may differ between tissues.

Circadian rhythms have broad implications for understanding brain and behavior

This overview examines landmark studies in the history of the study of circadian timing system, and highlights the current understanding of the operation of circadian clocks with a focus on topics of interest to the neuroscience community.

The mammalian circadian system: a hierarchical multi-oscillator structure for generating circadian rhythm

  • S. Honma
  • Biology
    The Journal of Physiological Sciences
  • 2018
The oscillatory coupling within and between the regional oscillators appears to be critical for the extraordinary stability and the wide range of adaptability of the circadian clock, the mechanism of which is now being elucidated with newly advanced molecular tools.

Monitoring cell-autonomous circadian clock rhythms of gene expression using luciferase bioluminescence reporters.

A stable transduction protocol using lentivirus-mediated gene delivery and lentiviral vector system is described, superior to traditional methods such as transient transfection and germline transmission because of its efficiency and versatility.

Peripheral Circadian Oscillators

The discovery of the genes that constituted the molecular timekeeping system provided the tools for demonstrating the existence of bona fide circadian oscillators in nearly every peripheral tissue in animals, including rodents, in the late 1990s and early 2000s, which led to the current understanding that the circadian system in animals is a hierarchical multi-oscillatory network, composed of master pacemaker(s) in the brain and oscillator in peripheral organs.



Rapid Resetting of the Mammalian Circadian Clock

The results establish the temporal window within which to define the primary molecular mechanisms of circadian resetting in the mammal and demonstrate that the SCN are able to resolve and respond to light pulses presented 1 or 2 hr apart.

Circadian oscillation of a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila period gene

The human and mouse genes (hPER and mPer, respectively) encoding PAS-domain (PAS, a dimerization domain present in Per, Amt and Sim)-containing polypeptides that are highly homologous to dPer are identified.

A diffusible coupling signal from the transplanted suprachiasmatic nucleus controlling circadian locomotor rhythms

It is shown that the transplanted SCN, like neural pacemakers of Drosophila and silkmoths, can sustain circadian activity rhythms by means of a diffusible signal.

Independent photoreceptive circadian clocks throughout Drosophila.

The results show that autonomous circadian oscillators are present throughout the body, and they suggest that individual cells in Drosophila are capable of supporting their own independent clocks.

Transplanted suprachiasmatic nucleus determines circadian period.

The pacemaker role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in a mammalian circadian system was tested by neural transplantation by using a mutant strain of hamster that shows a short circadian period to restore circadian rhythms to arrhythmic animals whose own nucleus had been ablated.

Suprachiasmatic nucleus: a central autonomic clock

This work used viral transneuronal labeling to demonstrate extensive connections of the SCN with diverse types of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic motor systems and showed connections of single SCN neurons to multiple autonomic systems.