Long-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of primary resection for Mason type III radial head fractures were evaluated in 13 patients (14 elbows) with a mean age of 38.8 years (range, 20-67 years) at the time of surgery. All patients had isolated radial head fractures without associated injuries. Mean follow-up was 14.7 years (range, 9-26 years). Proximal migration of the radius and the carrying angle were measured, and radiographs were reviewed for degenerative elbow and wrist arthritis and periarticular ossification. Five results were excellent and 9 were good. In 8 cases, the radii had migrated proximally and the carrying angle had increased an average 6.3°; the increases in both ulnar variance and the carrying angle were significant, and a significant negative correlation was found between the carrying angles and the clinical scores. Degenerative changes occurred in 8 elbows and 4 wrists, and periarticular heterotopic ossification was present in 3 elbows. Despite the satisfactory long-term outcomes, radial head resection resulted in proximal migration of the radius and an increase in the carrying angle; in addition, osteoarthritic changes in both elbows and wrists as well as periarticular heterotopic ossification were frequent findings without pronounced functional impairment.