Research on Presence in Virtual Reality: A Survey

@article{Schuemie2001ResearchOP,
  title={Research on Presence in Virtual Reality: A Survey},
  author={M. Schuemie and Peter van der Straaten and M. Krijn and C. V. D. Mast},
  journal={Cyberpsychology \& behavior : the impact of the Internet, multimedia and virtual reality on behavior and society},
  year={2001},
  volume={4 2},
  pages={
          183-201
        }
}
Virtual Reality (VR) is starting to be used in psychological therapy around the world. However, a thorough understanding of the reason why VR is effective and what effect it has on the human psyche is still missing. Most research on this subject is related to the concept of presence. This paper gives an up-to-date overview of research in this diverse field. It starts with the most prevailing definitions and theories on presence, most of which attribute special roles for the mental process of… Expand
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References

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Measuring the Sense of Presence and its Relations to Fear of Heights in Virtual Environments
TLDR
This article describes a study in which a genuine effect of presence--the development of fear of virtual stimuli--was provoked and the sense of presence within this situation was measured, showing that fear increased with higher presence. Expand
Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire
TLDR
Combined results from four experiments lead to the following conclusions: the PQ and ITQ are internally consistent measures with high reliability; there is a weak but consistent positive relation between presence and task performance in VEs; individuals who report more simulator sickness symptoms in VE report less presence than those who report fewer symptoms. Expand
Presence as the Defining Factor in a VR Application
The sense of presence that a user experiences in a virtual environment is perhaps the bestknown attribute of virtual reality. It is an appeal to this sense of presence that is used to distinguishExpand
Depth of Presence in Virtual Environments
TLDR
The idea of stacking depth, that is, where a participant can simulate the process of entering the virtual environment while already in such an environment, which can be repeated to several levels of depth, is introduced. Expand
A Framework for Immersive Virtual Environments (FIVE): Speculations on the Role of Presence in Virtual Environments
TLDR
It is proposed that the degree of immersion can be objectively assessed as the characteristics of a technology, and has dimensions such as the extent to which a display system can deliver an inclusive, extensive, surrounding, and vivid illusion of virtual environment to a participant. Expand
At the Heart of It All: The Concept of Presence
A number of emerging technologies including virtual reality, simulation rides, video conferencing, home theater, and high definition television are designed to provide media users with an illusionExpand
Presence within Virtual Environments as a Function of Visual Display Parameters
TLDR
It was shown that the survey questions evaluating several aspects of presence produced reliable responses across questions and studies, indicating that the questionnaire is a useful tool when evaluating presence in virtual environments. Expand
Using Presence Questionnaires in Reality
TLDR
It is concluded that, although such questionnaires may be useful when all subjects experience the same type of environment, their utility is doubtful for the comparison of experiences across environments, such as immersive virtual compared to real, or desktop compared to immersive virtual. Expand
Representations Systems, Perceptual Position, and Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments
  • M. Slater, M. Usoh
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TLDR
The data analysis does suggest a relationship between reported sense of presence, preferred representation system, perceptual position, and an interaction effect between these and the virtual body factor. Expand
The Influence of Dynamic Shadows on Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments
TLDR
The experiment suggests that for visually dominant subjects, the great the extent of shadow phenomena in the virtual environment, the greater the sense of presence. Expand
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