Republished: Nicotine and health

@article{Bulletin2014RepublishedNA,
  title={Republished: Nicotine and health},
  author={Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin},
  journal={BMJ : British Medical Journal},
  year={2014},
  volume={349}
}
Nicotine, an alkaloid derived from the leaves of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana rustica) is the primary addictive agent in tobacco products.1,2 There are different ways of administering the various products including smoking cigarettes, chewing tobacco, holding moist snuff in the mouth, inhaling dry snuff through the nose, inhaling smoke from a waterpipe and inhaling vapour from an electronic cigarette.3–6 It can be difficult differentiating the effects of nicotine from the… 
E-cigarettes may help smokers stop or reduce smoking
  • L. Brose
  • Medicine
    Evidence-Based Medicine
  • 2015
Commentary on : McRobbie H, Bullen C, Hartmann-Boyce J, et al. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation and reduction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;12:CD010216. Tobacco smoking kills at least
The current state of tobacco cessation treatment
TLDR
Smoking cessation medications include nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline, and comprehensive treatment with behavioral interventions and pharmacologic therapy increases success rates of smoking cessation.
Harm perceptions of e‐cigarettes and other nicotine products in a UK sample
TLDR
Large proportions of UK smokers and ex‐smokers overestimate the relative harmfulness of e‐cigarettes and nicotine replacement therapy compared with smoking; misattributing smoking harms to nicotine is associated with increased misperceptions.
What are the long-term effects of smoked marijuana on lung health?
  • W. Tan, D. Sin
  • Political Science, Medicine
    Canadian Medical Association Journal
  • 2018
TLDR
Canada becomes the second country in the world, after Uruguay, to legalize the use of marijuana for medical and recreational purposes.
In Silico Analysis of Potential Nicotine Addiction Treatment by Cinnamomum verum Phytochemicals against nAChRα3 and nAChRα7
TLDR
In silico study, phytochemicals in Cinnamomum verum potentially reduce addiction to nicotine by inhibiting the receptor and improving the neuroinflammation due to nicotine.
Three Decades of High-Dose Nicotine Gum Dependence Treated With Nicotine Patches.
  • C. Mendelsohn
  • Medicine, Biology
    Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
  • 2016
TLDR
A 45-year old man presented with a 30-year history of high-dose nicotine gum use and was highly nicotine dependent and was able to cease nicotine gum with minimal discomfort and has remained nicotine-free for 6 months, with abstinence confirmed biochemically.
E-Liquids from Seven European Countries–Warnings Analysis and Freebase Nicotine Content
Electronic cigarettes are available in a variety of devices with e-liquids also available in many flavors, and nicotine concentrations, albeit less than 20 mg/mL in Europe. Given the dynamics of
Nicotine in Inflammatory Diseases: Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Inflammatory Effects
TLDR
The molecular mechanism of nicotine in these inflammatory diseases through regulating immune cells, immune factors, and the vagus and acetylcholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways is summarized, to explore the effective medical value of nicotine and open up new horizons for remedying acute and chronic inflammation in humans.
Heated Tobacco Products and Nicotine Pouches: A Survey of People with Experience of Smoking and/or Vaping in the UK
TLDR
In this sample of adults with a history of nicotine use, very few currently used heated tobacco products or nicotine pouches and the low level of use is unlikely to substantially reduce the public health impact of smoking.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 29 REFERENCES
Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeutics.
  • N. Benowitz
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
  • 2009
TLDR
Genetic studies indicate roles for nicotinic receptor subtypes, as well as genes involved in neuroplasticity and learning, in development of dependence, and Pharmacotherapeutic approaches to tobacco addiction include nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline.
Can nicotine be used medicinally in Parkinson’s disease?
TLDR
Together, data suggest that nicotine or nicotinic receptor drugs have therapeutic potential for Parkinson’s disease, although the specific treatment regimens remain to be determined.
Nicotine vaccines for smoking cessation.
  • K. Lisy
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical nurse specialist CNS
  • 2013
TLDR
A systematic review was warranted to determine if nicotine vaccines might play a role in smoking cessation and prevention of smoking relapse.
Dependence on tobacco and nicotine products: a case for product-specific assessment.
  • K. Fagerström, T. Eissenberg
  • Medicine
    Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
  • 2012
TLDR
It is hypothesize that there is a continuum of dependence as much as there isA continuum of harm, with tobacco cigarettes and NR products on opposite ends of both continua and other products (waterpipe and ECIGs) somewhere in between.
How much nicotine kills a human? Tracing back the generally accepted lethal dose to dubious self-experiments in the nineteenth century
  • B. Mayer
  • Medicine
    Archives of Toxicology
  • 2013
The human toxicity of nicotine has become increasingly relevant in the past couple of years through marketing of new nicotine-containing products, such as smokeless tobacco and liquids for electronic
Nicotine vaccines for smoking cessation.
TLDR
The results showed nicotine vaccines to be well tolerated, with the majority of adverse events classified as mild or moderate, and the primary outcome measure was a minimum of six months abstinence from smoking.
Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.
TLDR
The effectiveness of NRT appears to be largely independent of the intensity of additional support provided to the smoker, and the combination of bupropion and nicotine patch was significantly more effective than nicotine patch alone.
Interventions to reduce harm from continued tobacco use.
TLDR
The evidence base for this comparison is inadequate to support the use of these types of behavioural advice to reduce smoking, and it is unclear whether or not these aids increase the likelihood of smoking reduction or cessation.
Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation.
TLDR
There was no evidence of an effect of naltrexone alone or as an adjunct to NRT on long-term smoking abstinence, with a point estimate strongly suggesting no effect and confidence intervals that make a clinically important effect of treatment unlikely.
Opioid antagonists for smoking cessation.
TLDR
Based on limited data from four trials it is not possible to confirm or refute whether naltrexone helps smokers quit, and the confidence intervals are compatible with both clinically significant benefit and possible negative effects of nALTrexone in promoting abstinence.
...
...