Reproductive factors and Parkinson's disease: A multicenter case–control study

@article{Nicoletti2011ReproductiveFA,
  title={Reproductive factors and Parkinson's disease: A multicenter case–control study},
  author={Alessandra Nicoletti and Giuseppe Nicoletti and Gennarina Arabia and Grazia Annesi and Michele de Mari and Paolo Lamberti and Lucia Grasso and R. Marconi and Antonio Epifanio and Letterio Morgante and Autilia Cozzolino and Paolo Barone and Aldo Quattrone and Mario Zappia},
  journal={Movement Disorders},
  year={2011},
  volume={26}
}
The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible association between endogenous and exogenous estrogens and Parkinson's disease (PD). 
Increased Menopausal Age Reduces the Risk of Parkinson's Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Approach
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  • Psychology, Medicine
    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • 2021
TLDR
Mendelian randomization (MR) may address measurement errors because of difficulties accurately reporting the age these life events occur.
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TLDR
The relationship between Parkinson's disease and female reproductive factors in the largest population‐based Parkinson’s disease case−control study to date is examined.
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Given the overlap between Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, we examined genetic variants in α‐synuclein (SNCA) as risk determinants for essential tremor.
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Hormone replacement therapy and Parkinson’s disease risk in women: a meta-analysis of 14 observational studies
TLDR
The results of meta-analysis do not support a protective role of HRT in female PD development and the relationship of hormone replacement therapy with Parkinson’s disease was inconclusive.
Head trauma and Parkinson’s disease: results from an Italian case-control study
TLDR
The FRAGAMP study supports the positive association between head trauma and Parkinson’s disease and multivariate analysis showed a significant positive link between PD and head trauma.
The relevance of gender in Parkinson’s disease: a review
TLDR
Findings challenge the definition of a more benign phenotype in women of Parkinson’s disease, and much work needs to be done to better understand the interaction between gender, genetics and environmental factors in determining the PD risk and clinical features.
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References

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Risk of Parkinson disease in women
TLDR
An association between factors reducing estrogen stimulation during life and PD was found, and the hypothesis that endogenous estrogens play a role in the development of PD is supported.
Voluptuary habits and clinical subtypes of Parkinson's disease: The FRAGAMP case–control study
TLDR
A significant inverse association between PD smoking, coffee, and alcohol consumption is found and when analysis was carried out considering the association of these factors as possible surrogate markers of a peculiar lifestyle the association was stronger for the AR phenotype.
Epidemiology of Parkinson's disease
Is there a connection between estrogen and Parkinson's disease?
  • L. Shulman
  • Biology
    Parkinsonism & related disorders
  • 2002
Hysterectomy, menopause, and estrogen use preceding Parkinson's disease: An exploratory case‐control study
TLDR
It is hypothesize that there is an increased risk of PD in conditions causing an early reduction in endogenous estrogen, and this hypothesis needs to be confirmed in a larger study.
The FRAGAMP study: environmental and genetic factors in Parkinson’s disease, methods and clinical features
TLDR
The FRAGAMP study represents one of the largest case–control studies carried out in Europe to investigate the possible role of environmental and genetic factors in Parkinson’s disease.
Effect of reproductive factors and postmenopausal hormone use on the risk of Parkinson disease
TLDR
Postmenopausal use of estrogen alone may increase the risk of Parkinson disease (PD) among women with a hysterectomy and Among women with natural menopause for whom the usual treatment is combined estrogen-progestin therapy, no increased risk of PD was observed.
Reproductive factors, exogenous estrogen use, and risk of Parkinson's disease
TLDR
In this large longitudinal study, there is no evidence of a beneficial effect of exogenous or endogenous estrogens on risk of Parkinson's disease, and the use of postmenopausal hormone use may interact with other risk factors, but findings are preliminary and need confirmation in other populations.
Hormonal Replacement Therapy in Women With Parkinson Disease and Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia: A Crossover Trial
TLDR
Estrogen replacement therapy-medroxyprogesterone acetate administration significantly improved peak-dose dyskinesia without worsening motor disability, thus suggesting a possible benefit on Dyskinesias in postmenopausal women with Parkinson disease.
Parkinson's disease and reproductive life events
TLDR
Compared the characteristics of reproductive events in PD subjects and in healthy women, with regard to onset and clinical aspects of the disease with respect to the milestones of reproductive life, the women with PD onset before menopause had a longer disease duration, and longer treatment with both levodopa and dopamine agonists.
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