Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Phthalates

@article{Lyche2009ReproductiveAD,
  title={Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Phthalates},
  author={Jan Ludvig Lyche and Arno C. Gutleb and Ǻke Bergman and Gunnar Sundst{\o}l Eriksen and Albertinka J. Murk and Erik Ropstad and Margaret Saunders and Janneche Utne Skaare},
  journal={Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B},
  year={2009},
  volume={12},
  pages={225 - 249}
}
The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce… 
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Toxicity and antiandrogenic effects of DEHP were evidenced by disturbed testicular histology and spermatogenesis, diminished testosterone, leutinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels, and sperm motility, whereas Se supplementation was found to be protective, reflecting its regulating role in cellular redox equilibrium.
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The results showed that main targets of DEHP during juvenile period were liver and metabolic system in both sexes, while sex-specific effects were recorded in reproductive system (male rats) and in thyroid (female rats).
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