Reproductive Success of Females Limited by Males in Two Pipefish Species

  title={Reproductive Success of Females Limited by Males in Two Pipefish Species},
  author={Anders Berglund and Gunilla Rosenqvist and Ingrid Svensson},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={506 - 516}
We investigate whether males limit the reproductive success of females in the two pipefish species Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion. Syngnathus typhle is sexually monomorphic, and courtship behavior does not differ between the sexes. In N. ophidion, on the contrary, females are larger, more colorful, and more active during courtship, possessing appearance-enlarging skin folds. In both species, males brood the offspring on their bodies, one internally and one externally. Males do not… 
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