Reproductive Success of Females Limited by Males in Two Pipefish Species

@article{Berglund1989ReproductiveSO,
  title={Reproductive Success of Females Limited by Males in Two Pipefish Species},
  author={Anders Berglund and Gunilla Rosenqvist and Ingrid Svensson},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  year={1989},
  volume={133},
  pages={506 - 516}
}
We investigate whether males limit the reproductive success of females in the two pipefish species Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion. Syngnathus typhle is sexually monomorphic, and courtship behavior does not differ between the sexes. In N. ophidion, on the contrary, females are larger, more colorful, and more active during courtship, possessing appearance-enlarging skin folds. In both species, males brood the offspring on their bodies, one internally and one externally. Males do not… 
Male limitation of female reproductive success in a pipefish: effects of body-size differences
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It was predicted that male limitation of female reproductive success is even more severe when all age classes are considered, and it was found that small females are more severely constrained by mate availability than are larger females because males choose to mate with larger females.
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In two species of pipefish the reproductive costs of the two sexes were compared to see how they might influence patterns of sex-role reversal, and in both species the limiting sex, males, faced higher reproductive costs than females, as would be expected in sex- role reversed animals.
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Selective males and ardent females in pipefishes
TLDR
Results are consistent both with earlier findings (males limit female reproduction and females compete for males) and with operational sex ratios in nature: in seven annual field samples in June, the numbers of S. typhle females with ripe eggs always significantly exceeded numbers of receptive males, which suggests the potential cost of being choosy in terms of lost matings is much higher in females than in males.
Reproductive migrations of the sex role reversed pipefish Nerophis lumbriciformis(Pisces; Syngnathidae)
TLDR
W worm pipefish Nerophis lumbriciformis is a clearly dimorphic species in spite of the observed polygynandry, suggesting that differences in remating intervals may be influential in determining the strength of sexual selection along with what may be expected from thepolygynandrous mating system alone.
Sex-role reversal revisited: choosy females and ornamented, competitive males in a pipefish
TLDR
In the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle, mate choice in the more competitive sex may be circumvented and even overruled by mate competition and mating willingness in the least competitive sex.
The operational sex ratio influences choosiness in a pipefish
TLDR
In the pipefish (Syngnathus typhle), males switched from maximizing mate quality to minimizing the risk of not reproducing as the operational sex ratio, OSR, became male biased.
Effects of mating order and male size on embryo survival in a pipefish
TLDR
A strong effect of female mating order is found, with larger clutches and higher embryo mortality in first- than second-laid broods, which may suggest that eggs over-ripen in the ovaries or reflect the negative effects of high embryo density in the brood pouch.
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