Reproduction in Risky Environments: The Role of Invasive Egg Predators in Ladybird Laying Strategies.

@article{Paul2015ReproductionIR,
  title={Reproduction in Risky Environments: The Role of Invasive Egg Predators in Ladybird Laying Strategies.},
  author={Sarah C Paul and Judith K. Pell and Jonathan D Blount},
  journal={PloS one},
  year={2015},
  volume={10 10},
  pages={e0139404}
}
Reproductive environments are variable and the resources available for reproduction are finite. If reliable cues about the environment exist, mothers can alter offspring phenotype in a way that increases both offspring and maternal fitness ('anticipatory maternal effects'-AMEs). Strategic use of AMEs is likely to be important in chemically defended species, where the risk of offspring predation may be modulated by maternal investment in offspring toxin level, albeit at some cost to mothers… CONTINUE READING
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