Reproduction in North American elk Cervus elaphus: paternity of calves sired by males of mixed age classes

@inproceedings{Kie2013ReproductionIN,
  title={Reproduction in North American elk Cervus elaphus: paternity of calves sired by males of mixed age classes},
  author={John G. Kie and Bruce Karl Johnson and James H. Noyes and Christen Lenney Williams and Brian L. Dick and Olin E. Jr. Rhodes and Rosemary J. Stussy and R Terry Bowyer},
  year={2013}
}
Our objective was to examine effects of groups of mixed numbers and ages of male North American elk Cervus elaphus on the reproductive performance of females. We conducted research at the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeastern Oregon, USA, during 1993-2000. Each spring in late March, we released 40 female elk, eight yearling (9-month old) male elk and 2-8 branch-antlered elk (i.e. ≥ 2 years of age during rut the following autumn) into a 622-ha fenced pasture. Elk were gathered… 
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