Reproduction and dispersal in an ant‐associated root aphid community

@article{Ivens2012ReproductionAD,
  title={Reproduction and dispersal in an ant‐associated root aphid community},
  author={Aniek B F Ivens and Daniel J C Kronauer and Ido Pen and Franjo Weissing and Jacobus J. Boomsma},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
  year={2012},
  volume={21}
}
Clonal organisms with occasional sex are important for our general understanding of the costs and benefits that maintain sexual reproduction. Cyclically parthenogenetic aphids are highly variable in their frequency of sexual reproduction. However, studies have mostly focused on free‐living aphids above ground, whereas dispersal constraints and dependence on ant‐tending may differentially affect the costs and benefits of sex in subterranean aphids. Here, we studied reproductive mode and… 
Ants farm subterranean aphids mostly in single clone groups - an example of prudent husbandry for carbohydrates and proteins?
TLDR
It is suggested that such culling of carbohydrate-providing symbionts for protein ingestion may maintain maximal host yield per aphid while also benefitting the domesticated aphids as long as their clone-mates reproduce successfully.
Costs and constraints in aphid-ant mutualism
  • I. Yao
  • Biology
    Ecological Research
  • 2014
TLDR
The honeydew of ant-attended aphids contains melezitose (a trisaccharide), which has an important role in aphid-ant interactions, and cuticular hydrocarbons on aphids and ants have clarified the underlying mechanisms of ant predation on aphid populations.
Differential transport of a guild of mutualistic root aphids by the ant Lasius flavus
Mutually beneficial associations are widespread in ecological networks. They are typically assembled as multispecies guilds of symbionts that compete for one or more host species. The ant Lasius
Ant‐induced evolutionary patterns in aphids
TLDR
A new classification of ant–aphid mutualism with respect to its ecological characteristics and new explanations of the development of certain morphological structures of aphids as resulting from adaptation to a trophobiotic relationship with ants are presented.
Effects of complex life cycles on genetic diversity: cyclical parthenogenesis
TLDR
Solid predictions of neutral genetic diversity are provided that may serve as a null model in detecting the action of common evolutionary or demographic processes in cyclical parthenogens (for example, selection or bottlenecks).
Cooperation and conflict in ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) farming mutualisms: A review
TLDR
Two best-known cases of ant farming are reviewed: fungus-gro wing by attine ants and Homoptera-tending by various groups of ants, highlighting a promising new take on classicMutualisms.
Molecular Approaches for Studying Root Herbivores
Reproductive mode and fine-scale population genetic structure of grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) in a viticultural area in California
TLDR
Genetic diversity, G: N ratio, Psex and FIS consistently suggested the occurrence of both parthenogenetic and sexual reproduction in California populations.
Can social partnerships influence the microbiome? Insights from ant farmers and their trophobiont mutualists
TLDR
The results show the ants’ microbiome is possibly shaped by their social partnerships, with ants that farm the same trophobionts also sharing strains of sugar‐processing Acetobacteraceae bacteria, known from other honeydew‐feeding ants and which likely reside extracellularly in the ants' guts.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 86 REFERENCES
Ecology and evolution of sex in aphids.
Ants farm subterranean aphids mostly in single clone groups - an example of prudent husbandry for carbohydrates and proteins?
TLDR
It is suggested that such culling of carbohydrate-providing symbionts for protein ingestion may maintain maximal host yield per aphid while also benefitting the domesticated aphids as long as their clone-mates reproduce successfully.
Climate and agricultural context shape reproductive mode variation in an aphid crop pest
TLDR
The results fit theoretical predictions of the influence of winter climate on the balance between sexual and asexual lineages and highlight the importance of current agricultural practices which seem to favour a small number of asexual generalist genotypes and their migration across large areas of monotonous environments.
The Evolution of Aphid Life Cycles
The life cycles of aphids are among the most remarkable of any animal group. They include parthenogenetic and sexual generations, elaborate polyphen­ isms, and obligate shifting between unrelated
Timing of dispersal: effect of ants on aphids
TLDR
It is shown that in ant-attended aphid species long-distance dispersal occurs significantly later, but that the year-to-year changes in the peak number of migrants are not significantly lower than for non-attENDED aphids.
Genetic structure of an aphid studied using microsatellites: cyclic parthenogenesis, differentiated lineages and host specialization
TLDR
Single‐locus microsatellites and a mitochondrial DNA marker are applied to a subset of the same DNA extracts, and several additional inferences are made about important genetic and population processes in S. avenae are made.
Reproductive mode and population genetic structure of the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae studied using phenotypic and microsatellite markers
TLDR
The results suggest that selection is important in structuring reproductive systems and genetic variation in French S. avenae, and there was substantial genic and genotypic diversity, even in the obligately asexual lineages.
Allelic and genotypic diversity in long‐term asexual populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum in comparison with sexual populations
TLDR
The results support the theoretical predictions and provide a new perspective on the origin of sexual populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and validate the hypothesis that organisms reproducing asexually should maintain higher allelic diversity per locus but lower genotypic diversity than organisms reproduced sexually.
Severely reduced sexual reproduction in northern populations of a clonal plant, Decodonverticillatus (Lythraceae)
TLDR
This abrupt shift away from sexual reproduction in populations at the northern periphery of the geographical range in D. verticillatus may greatly limit their evolutionary potential and restrict further northward expansion.
Ant semiochemicals limit apterous aphid dispersal
TLDR
It is shown that the walking movement of mutualistic apterous aphids is also reduced by ant semiochemicals, suggesting that aphids walk slower and their dispersal from an unsuitable patch is hampered by ants.
...
...