BACKGROUND Thalidomide was approved in Japan for multiple myeloma treatment in October 2008. A program called the Thalidomide Education and Risk Management System (TERMS®) was established to help ensure that every effort is made to use the drug safely. PURPOSE We report the use of thalidomide to treat multiple myeloma, and describe problems arising in the Thaled® outpatient department. PATIENTS AND METHODS Multiple myeloma patients treated with thalidomide at Hitachi General Hospital. INTERVENTION Monitoring of the efficacy and safety of thalidomide, and a questionnaire survey conducted at the Thaled® outpatient department. RESULTS The thalidomide response rate was 41. 7%. In 5 cases, all patients received steroids along with thalidomide. After auto-PBSCT, 1 of 2 cases demonstrated a good response (PR 1). After treatment with bortezomib, 1 of 2 cases demonstrated a good response (MR 1). After auto-PBSCT and treatment with bortezomib, 1 of 4 cases demonstrated a good response (PR 1). In a case demonstrating hematotoxicity Grade 3 (in addition to neutropenia), administration was discontinued. Regarding problems in the Thaled® outpatient department, the medical staff indicated that TERMS® is a very complicated program, while the patients requested prolongation of the prescription days and reduction of the economic burden of medication costs. CONCLUSION Thalidomide showed some success in treating multiple myeloma either after auto-PBSCT or following treatment with bortezomib. In the case demonstrating hematotoxicity Grade 3 (in addition to neutropenia), grave complications could have very easily developed, thus underscoring the importance of careful monitoring. Based on a questionnaire survey conducted in the Thaled® outpatient department, the medical staff made comments and patients raised issues that should be examined in the future.