OBJECTIVE To understand the epidemic tread of epidemic hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in 1999 and to develop programs for its control and prevention. METHODS Epidemiological, zoo-epidemiologic, serologic and viral diagnostics were used to analyse the information of monthly and annual reports from surveillance spots. RESULTS Twelve thousand nine hundred and thirty cases of EHF in all surveillance spots were reported with 135 cases of death in 1999. The morbidity and mortality were 5.37/100,000, and 1.04% respectively, which had a 1.47% decrease and 9.47% increase, comparing to that of 1998. The accordance of serological and clinical diagnosis was 67.25%, with rate of misreporting 1.28%. In animal surveillance, the density of mouse was 7.46% with predominant species Apodemus agrarius. In residential areas, the density of mouse was 6.21%, with predominant species Rattus norvegicus. For Apodemus agrarius in fields and Rattus norvegicus in residential areas, the indexes of HV carrier were 0.032 and 0.031 respectively in 1999. In spring and autumn, the indexes of HV carrier in Rattus norvegicus were apparently higher than that of Apodemus agrarius as the indexes of HV carrier in Rattus norvegicus were 0.028 and 0.036 comparing with 0.026 and 0.020 in Apodemus agrarius. CONCLUSION It is suggested that more attention should be paid to the surveillance in low and medium-sized epidemic areas because northern China is dry with short rainy season while the epidemic situation in the serious epidemic areas had been under control to some degree.