Reply to: No protofeathers on pterosaurs.

  title={Reply to: No protofeathers on pterosaurs.},
  author={Zixiao Yang and Baoyu Jiang and Maria E. McNamara and Stuart L. Kearns and Michael Pittman and Thomas G. Kaye and Patrick J. Orr and Xing Xu and Michael J. Benton},
  journal={Nature ecology \& evolution},
1Center for Research and Education on Biological Evolution and Environments, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China. 2School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. 3School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. 4Vertebrate Palaeontology Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China. 5Foundation for Scientific Advancement, Sierra Vista, AZ, USA… 
2 Citations
Pterosaur melanosomes support signalling functions for early feathers
The presence of diverse melanosome geometries in the skin and simple and branched feathers of a tapejarid pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous found in Brazil indicate that manipulation of feather colour—and thus functions of feathers in visual communication—has deep evolutionary origins.
Morphology and distribution of scales, dermal ossifications, and other non‐feather integumentary structures in non‐avialan theropod dinosaurs
The morphology and distribution of non-feathered integumentary structures in non-avialan theropods, covering squamous skin and naked skin as well as dermal ossifications are reviewed.


Sordes pilosus and the nature of the pterosaur flight apparatus
IT is now generally accepted that pterosaurs, Mesozoic reptiles, were true fliers, but the nature of their flight apparatus is still much disputed. Evidence has been presented in favour of bird-like
Fossilized melanosomes and the colour of Cretaceous dinosaurs and birds
It is reported that melanosomes (colour-bearing organelles) are not only preserved in the pennaceous feathers of early birds, but also in an identical manner in integumentary filaments of non-avian dinosaurs, thus refuting recent claims that the filaments are partially decayed dermal collagen fibres.
Pterosaur integumentary structures with complex feather-like branching
Preservation in two anurognathid pterosaur specimens of morphologically diverse pycnofibres show diagnostic features of feathers, hitherto considered unique to maniraptoran dinosaurs, and preserved melanosomes with diverse geometries, which could imply that feathers had deep evolutionary origins in ancestral archosaurs.
The soft tissue of Jeholopterus (Pterosauria, Anurognathidae, Batrachognathinae) and the structure of the pterosaur wing membrane
Although the understanding of the mechanical properties of the wing membrane is hampered by the lack of knowledge regarding the composition of the actinofibrils, the configuration observed in Jeholopterus might have allowed subtle changes in the membrane tension during flight, resulting in more control of flight movements and the organization of the wings when the animal was at rest.
The dinosaurian origin of feathers: perspectives from dolphin (Cetacea) collagen fibers
The early origin of birds is a hotly disputed debate and may be broadly framed as a conflict between paleontologists and ornithologists. The paleontological emphasis has shifted from Archaeopteryx
Do feathered dinosaurs exist? Testing the hypothesis on neontological and paleontological evidence
It is suggested that Aves plus bird‐like maniraptoran theropods (e.g., microraptors and others) may be a separate clade, distinctive from the main lineage of Theropoda, a remnant of the early avian radiation, exhibiting all stages of flight and flightlessness.
Evolution of birds: ichthyosaur integumental fibers conform to dromaeosaur protofeathers
The overall findings of the study are that the thesis of dinosaur "protofeathers" requires more substantial support than exists at present.
A new Chinese specimen indicates that ‘protofeathers’ in the Early Cretaceous theropod dinosaur Sinosauropteryx are degraded collagen fibres
A new specimen of Sinosauropteryx is reported which shows that the integumental structures proposed as protofeathers are the remains of structural fibres that provide toughness.
An integrative approach to understanding bird origins
Recent discoveries of spectacular dinosaur fossils overwhelmingly support the hypothesis that birds are descended from maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs, and furthermore, demonstrate that distinctive bird characteristics such as feathers, flight, endothermic physiology, unique strategies for reproduction and growth, and a novel pulmonary system originated among Mesozoic terrestrial dinosaurs.
Taphonomic experiments resolve controls on the preservation of melanosomes and keratinous tissues in feathers
Fossils are a key source of data on the evolution of feather structure and function through deep time, but their ability to resolve macroevolutionary questions is compromised by an incomplete