Reply — reconsolidation: The labile nature of consolidation theory

  title={Reply — reconsolidation: The labile nature of consolidation theory},
  author={Karim Nader and Glenn E. Schafe and Joseph E LeDoux},
  journal={Nature Reviews Neuroscience},
'Consolidation' has been used to describe distinct but related processes. In considering the implications of our recent findings on the lability of reactivated fear memories, we view consolidation and reconsolidation in terms of molecular events taking place within neurons as opposed to interactions between brain regions. Our findings open up a new dimension in the study of memory consolidation. We argue that consolidation is not a one-time event, but instead is reiterated with subsequent… 

Reconsolidation and the fate of consolidated memories

The consolidation-reconsolidation debate is addressed and some controversial issues about the reconsolidation hypothesis are discussed, in particular the biological role of this process.

Learning and memory: Interpretations of retrograde amnesia: old problems redux

An alternative retrieval-based theory is proposed that accommodates the recent data, as well as other puzzling related observations that suggest an old memory reactivated by cueing becomes labile and vulnerable to an amnesic treatment.

Memory traces unbound

  • K. Nader
  • Psychology, Biology
    Trends in Neurosciences
  • 2003

Memory Reconsolidation Versus Extinction

Reconsolidation of memory: A decade of debate

Cellular and Systems Reconsolidation in the Hippocampus

Retrieval failure versus memory loss in experimental amnesia: definitions and processes.

How the field might avoid arguments that are definitional in nature and how various hypotheses fare in light of published data are spoken to.

Memory Reconsolidation and Extinction Have Distinct Temporal and Biochemical Signatures

The temporal dynamics of memory reconsolidation are dependent on the strength and age of the memory, such that younger and weaker memories are more easily reconsolidated than older and stronger memories.



Commentary — reconsolidation: Memory involves far more than 'consolidation'

Other behavioural observations indicate that even this modification to consolidation theory may be insufficient to describe the dynamic properties of memory.

Commentary — reconsolidation: Memory traces revisited

The implications of these and earlier findings to the understanding of consolidation are commented on, and their possible relationship to the idea that retrieval creates a new memory trace, increasing the resistance of older memories to disruption is explored.

Memory--a century of consolidation.

This review examines the progress made over the century in understanding the time-dependent processes that create the authors' lasting memories.

Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex

Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval

It is shown that consolidated fear memories, when reactivated during retrieval, return to a labile state in which infusion of anisomycin shortly after memory reactivation produces amnesia on later tests, regardless of whether reactivation was performed 1 or 14 days after conditioning.

Retrieval and reconsolidation: toward a neurobiology of remembering.

  • S. Sara
  • Biology, Psychology
    Learning & memory
  • 2000
The theoretical emphasis on memory reactivation and reconsolidation made here raises the issue, as yet ill addressed by neurobiological experiments, of factors that control or modulate these processes.

Retrograde amnesia for old (reactivated) memory: some anomalous characteristics.

Old memory, when reactivated by cue exposure, was disrupted by mild or deep hypothermia treatments. New memory was impaired only by deep cooling. Moreover, old but not new learning showed spontaneous

Consolidation and the hippocampal complex revisited: in defense of the multiple-trace model

The seven sins of memory. Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

How and why memory can get us into trouble is examined and it is argued that the 7 sins may appear to reflect flaws in system design, but are actually by-products of otherwise adaptive features of memory.