The effect of adenovirus infection or transformation on the DNA replication of Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) was studied in human fibroblast cell lines. In WI38, HeLa, and 293 cells MVM infection allowed production of viral NS-1 and capsid proteins with or without adenovirus 2 (Ad2) co-infection. However, MVM DNA replication varied markedly. In HeLa cells MVM DNA was replicated weakly in host nucleoli, and replication was increased markedly by Ad2 co-infection as well as recompartmentalized to Ad2 replication factories. In Ad-transformed 293 cells MVM DNA was replicated very efficiently when infected alone or with Ad2 co-infection although recompartmentalization from nucleoli to replication factories was also seen. In WI38 cells MVM DNA was not replicated under any conditions. The variation in DNA replication in WI38, HeLa, and 293 cells despite viral protein production in all cases suggests that MVM DNA replication is uncoupled from viral gene expression and that host factors required for MVM DNA replication are induced or recompartmentalized by adenovirus infection or transformation.