Replication of Norovirus in Cell Culture Reveals a Tropism for Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

@article{Wobus2004ReplicationON,
  title={Replication of Norovirus in Cell Culture Reveals a Tropism for Dendritic Cells and Macrophages},
  author={Christiane E. Wobus and Stephanie M. Karst and Larissa B. Thackray and Kyeong-Ok Chang and Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev and Ga{\"e}l Belliot and Anne B Krug and Jason M. Mackenzie and Kim Y. Green and Herbert W. Virgin},
  journal={PLoS Biology},
  year={2004},
  volume={2}
}
Noroviruses are understudied because these important enteric pathogens have not been cultured to date. We found that the norovirus murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) infects macrophage-like cells in vivo and replicates in cultured primary dendritic cells and macrophages. MNV-1 growth was inhibited by the interferon-αβ receptor and STAT-1, and was associated with extensive rearrangements of intracellular membranes. An amino acid substitution in the capsid protein of serially passaged MNV-1 was… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Murine norovirus-1 entry into permissive macrophages and dendritic cells is pH-independent.
Identification of a novel cellular target and a co-factor for norovirus infection – B cells & commensal bacteria
TLDR
The mouse model of norovirus infection is used to confirm that Peyer's patch B cells are infected, and that commensal bacteria stimulate infection, in vivo and to discover the nature of B cell infection was distinct from innate immune cell infection.
Type I and Type II Interferons Inhibit the Translation of Murine Norovirus Proteins
TLDR
Both type I and type II interferon signaling inhibit norovirus translation in permissive myeloid cells, but they display distinct dependence on PKR for this inhibition.
Plaque Assay for Murine Norovirus
TLDR
A plaque assay protocol is described that can be used to effectively determine the number of infectious MNV particles present in biological or environmental samples and is useful for titrating viruses unable to form plaques.
Investigation of norovirus replication in a human cell line
TLDR
The authors' results indicated that NoV RNA was incorporated into the heavier particles, however, further studies are needed to investigate the antigenicity of these particles and to determine if they represent undeveloped VLPs.
Targeting macrophage- and intestinal epithelial cell-specific microRNAs against norovirus restricts replication in vivo.
TLDR
This study provides additional evidence that MNV shares the IEC tropism of HuNoVs in vivo, and now provides a model to dissect the contribution of replication in each cell type to viral pathogenesis and transmission in a native host.
Efficient Norovirus and Reovirus Replication in the Mouse Intestine Requires Microfold (M) Cells
TLDR
It is found that replication of two divergent MNV strains was reduced in mice depleted of M cells, and reovirus infection was also reduced in M cell-depleted mice, demonstrating that M cells are required for the pathogenesis of two unrelated enteric viruses that replicate in different cell types within the intestine.
Murine Norovirus 1 Infection Is Associated with Histopathological Changes in Immunocompetent Hosts, but Clinical Disease Is Prevented by STAT1-Dependent Interferon Responses
TLDR
It is demonstrated that murine norovirus infection of wild-type mice is associated with initial enteric seeding and subsequent extraintestinal spread, and mechanistic evidence of the role of STAT-1 in controlling clinical norov virus-induced disease is provided.
Endocytosis of Murine Norovirus 1 into Murine Macrophages Is Dependent on Dynamin II and Cholesterol
TLDR
It is concluded that the productive route of MNV-1 entry into murine macrophages is rapid and requires host cholesterol and dynamin II.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 48 REFERENCES
Attachment and entry of recombinant Norwalk virus capsids to cultured human and animal cell lines
TLDR
Binding and internalization of VLPs to cultured human and animal cell lines were studied in an attempt to identify potentially susceptible cell lines for virus propagation in vitro and to determine if early events in the replication cycle were responsible for the narrow host range and restriction of virus growth in cell culture.
STAT1-Dependent Innate Immunity to a Norwalk-Like Virus
TLDR
Analysis of Murine Norovirus 1 infection revealed that signal transducer and activator of transcription 1–dependent innate immunity, but not T and B cell–dependent adaptive immunity, is essential for norovirus resistance.
Latent murine cytomegalovirus infection in macrophages.
TLDR
It is estimated that latently infected Mphi carry 1-10 copies of MCMV genome, but not persistent virus, and this argued for recruitment of bone marrow-derived Mphi (BMMphi) carrying MCMv genome into the peritoneum during inflammatory responses.
In vitro interaction of alveolar macrophages and pneumocytes with feline respiratory viruses
TLDR
The differences in viral susceptibility between these two peripheral pulmonary cell populations that were demonstrated in vitro probably contribute to the differences in pathogenesis of viral rhinotracheitis and calicivirus infections in cats.
Reticulum cell sarcoma: an effector cell in antibody-dependent cell-mediated immunity.
TLDR
A transplantable, murine reticulum cell sarcoma is described which exhibits the cytologic, adherence, and phagocytic properties of macrophages and mediate antibody-dependent cellular immunity as assayed by release of radioactivity from 51Cr-labeled erythrocytes.
Poliovirus 3A Protein Limits Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and Beta Interferon Secretion during Viral Infection
TLDR
It is surmised that the wild-type function of 3A in inhibiting ER-to-Golgi traffic is not required for viral replication in tissue culture but, by altering the amount of secreted cytokines, could have substantial effects on pathogenesis within an infected host.
Laboratory efforts to cultivate noroviruses.
TLDR
Methods used to try to grow NoV in vitro in two laboratories were unsuccessful and no reproducible NoV-induced CPE was observed and all RT-PCR results that were positive initially were negative following continued passaging.
Isolation of Enzymatically Active Replication Complexes from Feline Calicivirus-Infected Cells
TLDR
The isolation of enzymatically active RCs containing both viral and cellular proteins should facilitate efforts to dissect the contributions of the virus and the host to FCV RNA replication.
Ultrastructural studies of the development of feline calicivirus in a feline embryo cell line
TLDR
It was established that nuclear chromatin undergoes profound changes consisting of condensation usually into a single, rounded, central mass.
...
...