Replication and Expression Strategies of Viruses

  title={Replication and Expression Strategies of Viruses},
  author={S S Rampersad and Paula F. Tennant},
  pages={55 - 82}

Short and Sweet: Viral 5`-UTR as a Canonical and Non-Canonical Translation Initiation Switch

Cap-dependent and cap-independent translation initiation mechanisms are summarized and the unique ability of the BBV mRNA 5’-UTR to switch between these two modes of translation initiation in the context of the viral life cycle is elaborated.

Top Three Strategies of ss(+)RNA Plant Viruses: Great Opportunists and Ecosystem Tuners with a Small Genome

RNA viruses are increasingly treated not as micropathogens but as necessary regulators of ecosystem balance, and a fundamental understanding of this aspect of the role played by viruses in the ecosystem makes it possible to apply this knowledge to the creation of DNA insecticides.

Computational Prediction of Bacteriophage Host Ranges

Recently developed bioinformatic tools are reviewed that offer a promising and high-throughput alternative by computationally predicting the putative host ranges of bacteriophages, including those challenging to grow in laboratory environments.

The Impact of Epitranscriptomics on Antiviral Innate Immunity

At the virological level, epitranscriptomics can thus directly impact the viral life cycle itself, acting on viral or cellular proteins promoting replication, or impacting the innate antiviral response of the host cell, the latter being the focus of the present review.

Temperature modulates immune gene expression in mosquitoes during arbovirus infection

Temperature significantly modulates mosquito gene expression in response to infection, potentially leading to impairment of immune defences at higher temperatures.

Potential Antiviral Action of Alkaloids

Overall, the influence of alkaloids at the molecular level suggests a high degree of specificity which means they could serve as potent and safe antiviral agents waiting for evaluation and exploitation.

SARS-CoV-2 couples evasion of inflammatory response to activated nucleotide synthesis

  • Chao QinYouliang Rao P. Feng
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2022
It is reported that SARS-CoV-2 couples evasion of inflammatory response to activated nucleotide synthesis, and inhibition of a key metabolic enzyme not only depletes the nucleotide pool but also restores host inflammatory defense, thereby effectively impeding Sars-Cov-2 replication.



Virus manipulation of cell cycle

Taking the maxim “Set a thief to catch a thief” as a counter strategy provides the very same virus evasion strategies as “ready-made tools” for the development of novel antivirus therapeutics.

Cytoplasmic Viruses: Rage against the (Cellular RNA Decay) Machine

This review describes the myriad ways that viruses deal with the general host RNA decay machinery that is active in the cell immediately upon viral infection—turning what, at first, appears to be very hostile territory for a foreign transcript into a sort of “promised land” for viral gene expression.

Adenovirus DNA replication.

The development of antivirals that interfere with human adenovirus replication and the impact of HAdV on human disease are covered.

The role of the influenza virus RNA polymerase in host shut-off

It is found that Pol II is ubiquitylated in influenza virus infected cells and ubiquitylation can be induced by the expression of the RNA polymerases, and that the viral RNA polymerase plays a critical role in this process.

Influenza Viruses and mRNA Splicing: Doing More with Less

The ability of IAV to be well adapted to the host’s splicing machinery is emphasized, and further investigations may contribute to a better understanding of splicing regulation with regard to viral replication, host range, and pathogenesis.

A Common Strategy for Host RNA Degradation by Divergent Viruses

Multiple host shutoff factors have converged upon a common mRNA degradation pathway, and each targets translatable RNAs for cleavage and requires host Xrn1 to complete RNA degradation, although the mechanism of targeting and the position of the primary cleavage differ.

Converging Strategies in Expression of Human Complex Retroviruses

The present review summarizes the genetic organization and expression strategies of human complex retroviruses and highlights the converging mechanisms controlling their life cycles.

Strategies in subversion: de‐regulation of the mammalian cell cycle by viral gene products

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Viral Subversion of Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking

This review explores the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to viral pathogenesis as these studies revealed new antiviral therapeutic strategies and exposed previously unknown cellular mechanisms.