# Replica wormholes and the entropy of Hawking radiation

@article{Almheiri2019ReplicaWA, title={Replica wormholes and the entropy of Hawking radiation}, author={Ahmed Almheiri and Thomas Hartman and Juan Martin Maldacena and Edgar Shaghoulian and Amirhossein Tajdini}, journal={Journal of High Energy Physics}, year={2019}, volume={2020}, pages={1-42} }

The information paradox can be realized in anti-de Sitter spacetime joined to a Minkowski region. In this setting, we show that the large discrepancy between the von Neumann entropy as calculated by Hawking and the requirements of unitarity is fixed by including new saddles in the gravitational path integral. These saddles arise in the replica method as complexified wormholes connecting different copies of the black hole. As the replica number n → 1, the presence of these wormholes leads to the…

## 385 Citations

Replica wormholes and the black hole interior

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2022

Recent work has shown how to obtain the Page curve of an evaporating black hole from holographic computations of entanglement entropy. We show how these computations can be justified using the…

A violation of global symmetries from replica wormholes and the fate of black hole remnants

- Physics
- 2020

We show that the presence of replica wormholes in the Euclidean path integral of gravity leads to a non-perturbative violation of charge conservation for any global symmetry present in the low-energy…

Free energy from replica wormholes

- Physics
- 2021

Euclidean wormholes---geometries which connect disconnected boundaries---present a challenge to a standard quantum mechanical interpretation of the theory. One potential resolution is that the…

Observations of Hawking radiation: the Page curve and baby universes

- Physics
- 2020

We reformulate recent insights into black hole information in a manner emphasizing operationally-defined notions of entropy, Lorentz-signature descriptions, and asymptotically flat spacetimes. With…

Islands in de Sitter space

- Physics
- 2020

We consider black holes in 2d de Sitter JT gravity coupled to a CFT, and entangled with matter in a disjoint non-gravitating universe. Tracing out the entangling matter leaves the CFT in a density…

Replica wormholes for an evaporating 2D black hole

- Physics
- 2020

Quantum extremal islands reproduce the unitary Page curve of an evaporating black hole. This has been derived by including replica wormholes in the gravitational path integral, but for the transient,…

Gravity/ensemble duality

- Physics
- 2020

For the first time, a gravitational calculation was recently shown to yield the Page curve for the entropy of Hawking radiation, consistent with unitary evolution. However, the calculation takes as…

Transcending the ensemble: baby universes, spacetime wormholes, and the order and disorder of black hole information

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2020

In the 1980's, work by Coleman and by Giddings and Strominger linked the physics of spacetime wormholes to `baby universes' and an ensemble of theories. We revisit such ideas, using features…

Probing Hawking radiation through capacity of entanglement

- Physics
- 2021

We consider the capacity of entanglement in models related with the gravitational phase transitions. The capacity is labeled by the replica parameter which plays a similar role to the inverse…

The Page curve of Hawking radiation from semiclassical geometry

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2020

We consider a gravity theory coupled to matter, where the matter has a higher-dimensional holographic dual. In such a theory, finding quantum extremal surfaces becomes equivalent to finding the…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 95 REFERENCES

The Page curve of Hawking radiation from semiclassical geometry

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2020

We consider a gravity theory coupled to matter, where the matter has a higher-dimensional holographic dual. In such a theory, finding quantum extremal surfaces becomes equivalent to finding the…

Traversable wormholes in four dimensions

- Physics, Computer Science
- 2018

A wormhole solution in four dimensions that can be viewed as a pair of entangled near extremal black holes with an interaction term generated by the exchange of fermion fields and embedded in the Standard Model by making its overall size small compared to the electroweak scale.

Entanglement islands in higher dimensions

- Physics
- 2019

It has been suggested in recent work that the Page curve of Hawking radiation can be recovered using computations in semi-classical gravity provided one allows for "islands" in the gravity region of…

Entanglement Entropy in Jackiw-Teitelboim Gravity

- Computer Science
- 2019

The quantum Hubeny-Rangamani-Ryu-Takayanagi formula is applied and the sum of these two terms for the Hartle-Hawking state agrees with the black hole entropy above extremality computed from the Euclidean disk path integral.

Chaos in AdS_{2} Holography.

- PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 2016

A generic theory of gravity near a two-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime throat is rewritten as a novel hydrodynamics coupled to the correlation functions of a conformal quantum mechanics to find that the dual is maximally chaotic.

Towards black hole evaporation in Jackiw-Teitelboim gravity

- PhysicsJournal of High Energy Physics
- 2019

Abstract
Using a definition of the bulk frame within 2d Jackiw-Teitelboim gravity, we go into the bulk from the Schwarzian boundary. Including the path integral over the Schwarzian degrees of…

Time evolution of entanglement entropy from black hole interiors

- Physics, Geology
- 2013

A bstractWe compute the time-dependent entanglement entropy of a CFT which starts in relatively simple initial states. The initial states are the thermofield double for thermal states, dual to…

Generalized gravitational entropy

- Mathematics
- 2013

A bstractWe consider classical Euclidean gravity solutions with a boundary. The boundary contains a non-contractible circle. These solutions can be interpreted as computing the trace of a density…