Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Motor Cortex after Stroke: A Focused Review

@article{Corti2012RepetitiveTM,
  title={Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Motor Cortex after Stroke: A Focused Review},
  author={Manuela Corti and Carolynn Patten and William Triggs},
  journal={American Journal of Physical Medicine \& Rehabilitation},
  year={2012},
  volume={91},
  pages={254–270}
}
ABSTRACT Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is known to modulate cortical excitability and has thus been suggested to be a therapeutic approach for improving the efficacy of rehabilitation for motor recovery after stroke. In addition to producing effects on cortical excitability, stroke may affect the balance of transcallosal inhibitory pathways between motor primary areas in both hemispheres: the affected hemisphere (AH) may be disrupted not only by the infarct itself but also… 
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TLDR
The authors' clinical trials established an extended timeframe during which conditioning could be safely continued and produced more favorable outcomes in facilitating motor performance and ameliorating interhemispheric imbalance than those obtained from single-course rTMS modulation alone.
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TLDR
This pilot study reported unexpected M1 excitability changes, which most likely stems from variability, which is a major concern in the field to consider.
High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Effects on Motor Intracortical Neurophysiology: A Sham-Controlled Investigation
  • M. Malcolm, Roger J. Paxton
  • Psychology, Biology
    Journal of clinical neurophysiology : official publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
  • 2015
TLDR
High-frequency rTMS significantly influences the excitatory and inhibitory outputs of motor intracortical networks, specifically increasing intracortsical facilitation and reducing ICI as compared with sham stimulation.
Intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation Increases Natural Oscillatory Frequency in Ipsilesional Motor Cortex Post-Stroke: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Electroencephalography Study
TLDR
It is found that natural frequency is altered following stroke which is related to motor impairments, and iTBS increases natural frequency in the ipsilesional motor cortex in stroke survivors.
Modulating Brain Connectivity by Simultaneous Dual-Mode Stimulation over Bilateral Primary Motor Cortices in Subacute Stroke Patients
TLDR
Data suggested that simultaneous dual-mode stimulation contributed to the recovery of interhemispheric interaction than rTMS only in subacute stroke patients.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation modulates cortical–subcortical connectivity in sensorimotor network
TLDR
The alterations of connectivity within SMN after rTMS intervention at different frequencies may help to understand the mechanisms of rT MS treatment for movement disorders associated with deficits in subcortical regions such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and Tourette's syndrome.
Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on lower extremity spasticity and motor function in stroke patients
TLDR
Amelioration of lower extremity spasticity and motor function improvement after five daily sessions of inhibitory rTMS to the unaffected brain hemisphere which lasted for at least 1 week following the intervention.
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