Repeated stress alters the ability of nicotine to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Abstract

Acute nicotine administration has been shown to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and stimulate secretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone/cortisol and beta-endorphin (beta-END) in both rodents and humans, raising the possibility that activation of the HPA axis by nicotine may mediate some of the effects of… (More)

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