Repeated polyploidization of Gossypium genomes and the evolution of spinnable cotton fibres

  title={Repeated polyploidization of Gossypium genomes and the evolution of spinnable cotton fibres},
  author={Andrew H. Paterson and Jonathan F. Wendel and Heidrun Gundlach and Hui Guo and Jerry W. Jenkins and Dianchuan Jin and Danny J Llewellyn and Kurt C. Showmaker and Shengqiang Shu and Joshua A. Udall and Mi-Jeong Yoo and R. Lee Byers and Wei Chen and Adi Doron-Faigenboim and Mary V. Duke and Lei Gong and Jane Grimwood and Corrinne E. Grover and K. K. Grupp and Guan-jing Hu and Tae-Ho Lee and Jingping Li and Lifeng Lin and Tao Liu and Barry S. Marler and Justin T. Page and Alison W. Roberts and E. Romanel and William S. Sanders and Emmanuel Szadkowski and Xu Tan and Haibao Tang and Chunming Xu and Jinpeng Wang and Zining Wang and Dong Zhang and Lan Zhang and Hamid Ashrafi and Frank Bedon and John E. Bowers and Curt L. Brubaker and Peng W. Chee and Sayan Das and Alan R. Gingle and Candace H. Haigler and David E. Harker and L{\'u}cia Vieira Hoffmann and Ran Hovav and Donald C. Jones and Cornelia Lemke and Shahid Mansoor and Mehboob-Ur- Rahman and Lisa N. Rainville and Aditi Rambani and Umesh K. Reddy and Junkang Rong and Yehoshua Saranga and Brian E. Scheffler and Jodi A Scheffler and David M. Stelly and Barbara A. Triplett and Allen Van Deynze and Maite F. S. Vaslin and Vijay N. Waghmare and Sally-Ann Walford and Robert J. Wright and Essam A. Zaki and Tianzhen Zhang and Elizabeth S. Dennis and Klaus F. X. Mayer and Daniel G. Peterson and Daniel S. Rokhsar and Xiyin Wang and Jeremy Schmutz},
Polyploidy often confers emergent properties, such as the higher fibre productivity and quality of tetraploid cottons than diploid cottons bred for the same environments. Here we show that an abrupt five- to sixfold ploidy increase approximately 60 million years (Myr) ago, and allopolyploidy reuniting divergent Gossypium genomes approximately 1–2 Myr ago, conferred about 30–36-fold duplication of ancestral angiosperm (flowering plant) genes in elite cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium… 

Gossypium barbadense genome sequence provides insight into the evolution of extra-long staple fiber and specialized metabolites

The sequenced G. barbadense genome advances the understanding of allopolyploidy, which will help improve cotton fiber quality and the rapid diversification of sesquiterpene synthase genes in the gossypol pathway exemplifies the chemical diversity of lineage-specific secondary metabolites.

Genome sequence of cultivated Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum TM-1) provides insights into genome evolution

A draft genome using 181-fold paired-end sequences assisted by fivefold BAC-to-BAC sequences and a high-resolution genetic map is produced for G. hirsutum, revealing conserved gene order and concerted evolution of different regulatory mechanisms for Cellulose synthase and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase1 and 3 may be important for enhanced fiber production.

Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum genomes provide insights into the origin and evolution of allotetraploid cotton

High-quality de novo–assembled genomes of two cultivated allotetraploid cotton species and whole-genome comparative analyses provide insights into the evolution of cotton genomes and improvement of fiber quality and resilience to stress.

The genome sequence of Sea-Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) provides insights into the allopolyploidization and development of superior spinnable fibres

A high-quality assembly of the 2.57 gigabase genome of G. barbadense is presented, suggesting an integrated regulatory mechanism of CesA genes from At and Dt subgenomes for the primary and secondary cellulose biosynthesis of cotton fibre in a “relay race”-like fashion.

Elucidation of Nuclear and Organellar Genomes of Gossypium hirsutum: Furthering Studies of Species Evolution and Applications for Crop Improvement

Analysis of the database of nuclear and organellar sequences will facilitate the identification of potential genes of interest and subsequent development of strategies for improving cotton.

Entire nucleotide sequences of Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum mitochondrial genomes revealed A-genome species as cytoplasmic donor of the allotetraploid species.

The presence/absence variations and gene-based phylogeny supported that A-genome is a cytoplasmic donor to the progenitor of allotetraploid species G. hirsutum and G.barbadense, the economically important fibre-producing cotton species.

Genomic diversifications of five Gossypium allopolyploid species and their impact on cotton improvement

Sequencing and genomic diversification of five allopolyploid cotton species provide insights into polyploid genome evolution and epigenetic landscapes for cotton improvement, and will empower efforts to manipulate genetic recombination and modify epigenetics landscapes and target genes for crop improvement.

Reference genome sequences of two cultivated allotetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense

Improved genome assemblies of allotetraploid cotton species Gossypium hirsutum and GOSSypium barbadense provide insights into cotton evolution and inform the construction of introgression lines used to identify loci associated with fiber quality.

Comparative transmission genetics of introgressed chromatin in Gossypium (cotton) polyploids.

Computational transmission of introgressed chromatin transmission is polymorphic among two elite G. hirsutum genotypes, which suggests that genetic background may profoundly affect introgression of particular chromosomal regions.



Comparative genomics of Gossypium and Arabidopsis: unraveling the consequences of both ancient and recent polyploidy.

Genomic regions in which chromosome structural rearrangement has been rapid (obscuring gene order correspondence) have also been subject to greater divergence of individual gene sequences, in some cases consistent with known, more ancient, duplications.

The draft genome of a diploid cotton Gossypium raimondii

Cotton, and probably Theobroma cacao, are the only sequenced plant species that possess an authentic CDN1 gene family for gossypol biosynthesis, as revealed by phylogenetic analysis.

A draft physical map of a D-genome cotton species (Gossypium raimondii)

Several lines of evidence suggest that the G. raimondii genome is comprised of two qualitatively different components, and much of the gene rich component is aligned to the Arabidopsis and Vitis vinifera genomes and shows promise for utilizing translational genomic approaches in understanding this important genome and its resident genes.

A detailed RFLP map of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum x Gossypium barbadense: chromosome organization and evolution in a disomic polyploid genome.

The cotton map affords new opportunities to study chromosome evolution, and to exploit Gossypium genetic resources for improvement of the world's leading natural fiber, hence map-based gene cloning is feasible.

An unusual ribosomal DNA sequence from Gossypium gossypioides reveals ancient, cryptic, intergenomic introgression.

An example of cryptic, intergenomic introgression between species groups now occupying different hemispheres illustrates how ITS data may provide insights into genome composition and evolutionary history, especially when used in the context of a holistic view that encompasses information from a variety of sources.

New World tetraploid cottons contain Old World cytoplasm.

  • J. Wendel
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1989
The data suggest that tetraploid cotton originated relatively recently, perhaps within the last 1-2 million years, with subsequent rapid evolution and diversification throughout the New World tropics.

Polyploid formation created unique avenues for response to selection in Gossypium (cotton).

The findings impel molecular dissection of the roles of divergent subgenomes in quantitative inheritance in many other polyploids and further exploration of both "synthetic" polyploid and exotic diploid genotypes for agriculturally useful variation.

The distribution of Gossypium hirsutum chromatin in G. barbadense germ plasm: molecular analysis of introgressive plant breeding

Using 106 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci well distributed across the cotton genome, the amount and genomic distribution of G. hirsutum chromatin was revealed and overlap of introgressed chromatin in different breeding programs hints that retention of these G. HirsUTum chromosomal segments may impart a selective advantage to G. barbadense genotypes.


Gossypium gossypioides provides a striking example of the previously unsuspected chimeric nature of some plant genomes and the resulting phylogenetic complexity produced by multiple historical reticulation events.

Rate variation among nuclear genes and the age of polyploidy in Gossypium.

Evidence from approximately 200,000 nucleotides suggests that polyploidy in Gossypium led to a modest enhancement in rates of nucleotide substitution, suggesting an absence of gene conversion or recombination among homoeologs subsequent to allopolyploid formation.