Repeated freeze–thaw cycles induce embolism in drought stressed conifers (Norway spruce, stone pine)


Freezing and thawing lead to xylem embolism when gas bubbles caused by ice formation expand during the thaw process. However, previous experimental studies indicated that conifers are resistant to freezing-induced embolism, unless xylem pressure becomes very negative during the freezing. In this study, we show that conifers experienced freezing-induced… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s00425-003-0997-4


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