Radiation-induced clustered DNA lesions: Repair and mutagenesis.
Closely locatedmultiple abasic sites or clustered abasic sites are highly mutagenic and potentially cytotoxic. They have been found to be repair resistant in several in vitro studies. We studied the efficiency of the repair of clustered abasic sites by the APE1 enzyme in nucleosome core particles (NCPs). Sequences having genomic importance as the core sequence of TATA box and CpG islands were used to assemble the NCPs where the abasic clusters are located around the A/T or G/C rich 0.5 positioning site of the NCPs. The thermodynamics of the binding and repair of the A/T or G/C encased clustered abasic sites in the NCPs by APE1 enzyme are reported herein for the first time that was monitored by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). The A/T encased clustered abasic sites in the NCP showed greater binding affinity with APE1 than the G/C counterpart. A/T encased abasic sites are also cleaved faster to generate double strand breaks by APE1 enzyme as compared to the CpG island sequence in the NCP, albeit at much slower rate than the linear model. Although, the overall reactivity of the abasic sites is appreciably reduced in the NCPs, distinct differences exist in the processing of the abasic sites that are flanked by A/T or G/C rich sequence. Our study suggests that both sequence effect and nucleosomal positioning are important determinants for the repair efficiency of clustered abasic sites in NCPs.