BACKGROUND Elevated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity is an important mechanism in the development of hypertension. Both obesity and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] deficiency have been associated with hypertension and augmented renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity. We tried to test the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency and obesity are associated with increased RAS activity in Indian patients with hypertension. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty newly detected hypertensive patients were screened. Patients with secondary hypertension, chronic kidney disease, or coronary artery disease were excluded. Patients underwent measurement of vitamin D and plasma renin and plasma aldosterone concentrations. They were divided into three groups according to their baseline body mass index (BMI; normal <25 kg/m(2), overweight 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and obese ≥30 kg/m(2)) and 25(OH)D levels (deficient <20 ng/ml, insufficient 20-29 ng/ml and optimal ≥30 ng/ml). RESULTS A total of 50 (male:female - 32:18) patients were included, with a mean age of 49.5 ± 7.8 years, mean BMI of 28.3 ± 3.4 kg/m(2) and a mean 25(OH)D concentration of 18.5 ± 6.4 ng/ml. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) was 162.4 ± 20.2 mm Hg and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 100.2 ± 11.2 mm Hg. All the three blood pressure parameters [SBP, DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP)] were significantly higher among individuals with lower 25(OH)D levels. The P values for trends in SBP, DBP and MAP were 0.009, 0.01 and 0.007, respectively. Though all the three blood pressure parameters (SBP, DBP and MAP) were higher among individuals with higher BMIs, they were not achieving statistical significance. Increasing trends in PRA and PAC were noticed with lower 25(OH)D and higher BMI levels. CONCLUSION Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are associated with stimulation of RAAS activity. Vitamin D supplementation along with weight loss may be studied as a therapeutic strategy to reduce tissue RAS activity in individualswith Vitamin D deficiency and obesity.