Rendering volumetric haptic shapes in mid-air using ultrasound

@article{Long2014RenderingVH,
  title={Rendering volumetric haptic shapes in mid-air using ultrasound},
  author={Benjamin Long and Sue Ann Seah and Thomas Carter and Sriram Subramanian},
  journal={ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG)},
  year={2014},
  volume={33},
  pages={1 - 10}
}
We present a method for creating three-dimensional haptic shapes in mid-air using focused ultrasound. This approach applies the principles of acoustic radiation force, whereby the non-linear effects of sound produce forces on the skin which are strong enough to generate tactile sensations. This mid-air haptic feedback eliminates the need for any attachment of actuators or contact with physical devices. The user perceives a discernible haptic shape when the corresponding acoustic interference… 

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