We present two cases of a 12-year-old Japanese boy and a 14-year-old Japanese girl who had exercise-induced acute renal failure (ARF). They experienced general fatigue, nausea/vomiting, and vague discomfort in the abdomen after physical exercise at school. In case of the boy, abdominal pain subsided, but renal dysfunction lasted 17 days, with peak levels of creatinine 9.4 mg/dl and uric acid 11.3 mg/dl. On the other hand, as the girl had suffered from hypouricemia before, she followed a doctor’s guidance on prevention of ARF. Consequently, she was promptly diagnosed as having exercise-induced ARF associated with hypouricemia, and rapidly recovered from ARF within a week. The difference between their clinical courses suggested a possibility that previous laboratory evaluation of serum uric acid assisted in the management of exercise-induced ARF associated with hypouricemia. School-aged children, especially Japanese and Asian, may be advised to have their serum uric acid measured before starting physical training at school.