OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of amino acids on renal function and oxygen consumption and the role of individual amino acids on renal blood flow (RBF) changes. DESIGN Prospective, randomized, controlled study. SETTING Operating room in cardiothoracic surgery department, university hospital. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-two male patients submitted to elective first-time coronary artery bypass surgery. INTERVENTIONS A catheter was placed in the left renal vein for thermodilution RBF measurements and blood sampling. In 11 patients, a balanced mixed amino acid infusion was infused (200 mL/hr) for 30 minutes immediately after the operation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS RBF and glomerular filtration rate increased during amino acid infusion compared with the control group. Renal oxygen consumption increased in the amino acid group and correlated with the increase in RBF (r = 0.70, p<0.001). Amino acid infusion induced two- to fourfold increases in plasma concentrations of individual amino acid concentrations and promoted renal extraction of aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and histidine. No correlation was observed between arterial concentration or uptake of individual amino acids and RBF. CONCLUSIONS The increase in RBF from a mixed amino acid infusion was associated with increased glomerular filtration rate and renal consumption of oxygen. Changes in RBF of a mixed amino acid infusion could not be linked to plasma level or renal uptake of any individual amino acids.