PURPOSE To investigate the renal complications associated with endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). METHODS Data were prospectively collected on 164 AAA patients (154 males; median age 72 years; interquartile range 51 to 88) undergoing endovascular grafting. Any history of renal failure and diabetes mellitus was recorded. Serum urea and creatinine levels were measured preoperatively and at regular intervals postoperatively. Renal impairment was defined as serum creatinine > 130 micromol/L. RESULTS There were no significant differences in pre- and 1-day postoperative serum urea and creatinine levels. Among 15 (9.1%) patients with preoperative renal failure, 7 (47%) died, 4 (27%) in the perioperative period. Of the 149 patients with normal renal function preoperatively, 4 (2.7%) developed renal failure as part of multisystem organ failure. Another 9 (6.2%) developed significant postoperative elevations (> 20%) in their creatinine levels compared to baseline; 4 of these patients died, 2 in the perioperative period. There was no significant difference in the median dose of intravascular contrast used for those patients that did and did not have a deterioration in their renal function (250 mL versus 300 mL). CONCLUSIONS In this study, approximately 6% of patients with normal preoperative renal function who undergo endovascular AAA repair develop renal dysfunction. For patients with preoperative renal impairment, the perioperative mortality rate is high, 27%, following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.