Renal carcinoma: detection of venous extension with gradient-echo MR imaging.


Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been proposed as a noninvasive alternative to vena cavography and computed tomography for the detection of venous extension of renal adenocarcinoma. However, spin-echo MR images may be compromised by the presence of flow-related artifacts, extrinsic compression, and respiratory or cardiac motion artifacts. Use of gradient… (More)