Renal artery stenosis: imaging options, pitfalls, and concerns.

  title={Renal artery stenosis: imaging options, pitfalls, and concerns.},
  author={Hong Lei Zhang and Thomas Andrew Sos and Priscilla A. Winchester and Jing Gao and Martin R. Prince},
  journal={Progress in cardiovascular diseases},
  volume={52 3},
Renal artery stenosis can be diagnosed with multiple imaging modalities, each one having different risk vs accuracy tradeoffs. Catheter angiography with pressure gradient measurements is the definitive gold standard but also the most invasive and thus reserved primarily for imaging at the time of renal revascularization. Ultrasonography is the safest and least expensive but also the least accurate and most operator-dependent. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic angiography and magnetic… CONTINUE READING
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