Purpose: Renal cryoablation is an evolving nephron-sparing treatment alternative for select patients with small renal tumors. Initially described via either an open or percutaneous technique, renal cryoablation has been performed by a laparoscopic approach with promising results. We critically review the cumulative evidence available regarding this technique. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature on both experimental and clinical studies was performed and evaluated. Historical aspects, pathophysiology, radiologic evaluation, clinical experience and future horizons of the technique are outlined. Results: Two institutions have reported their clinical experience with laparoscopic renal cryoablation. Despite the lack of long-term follow-up to date, current oncologic adequacy and safety have been encouraging. Conclusion: Experience with renal cryoablation is still evolving. Laparoscopic and percutaneous techniques are promising minimally invasive approaches for this developmental, nephron-sparing treatment modality. Long-term follow-up will determine the precise role of renal cryoablation in the management of selected patients with small renal tumors.