Removing the Threat of Diclofenac to Critically Endangered Asian Vultures

@article{Swan2006RemovingTT,
  title={Removing the Threat of Diclofenac to Critically Endangered Asian Vultures},
  author={Gerry E. Swan and Vinasan Naidoo and Richard J. Cuthbert and Rhys. E. Green and Deborah J. Pain and Devendra Swarup and Vibhu M. Prakash and Mark A. Taggart and Lizette Bekker and Devojit Das and J{\"o}rg Diekmann and Maria Diekmann and Elmari{\'e} Killian and Andrew A. Meharg and Ramesh Chandra Patra and Mohini Saini and Kerri. Wolter},
  journal={PLoS Biology},
  year={2006},
  volume={4}
}
Veterinary use of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug diclofenac in South Asia has resulted in the collapse of populations of three vulture species of the genusGyps to the most severe category of global extinction risk. Vultures are exposed to diclofenac when scavenging on livestock treated with the drug shortly before death. Diclofenac causes kidney damage, increased serum uric acid concentrations, visceral gout, and death. Concern about this issue led the Indian Government to… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Veterinary diclofenac threatens Africa's endangered vulture species.

Analysis of nine NSAIDs in ungulate tissues available to critically endangered vultures in India.

TLDR
If wild Gyps on the Indian subcontinent are to survive, diclofenac bans must be completely effective, and NSAIDs that replace it within the veterinary drug market must be of low toxicity toward Gyps and other scavenging birds.

Safety of meloxicam to critically endangered Gyps vultures and other scavenging birds in India

TLDR
It is recommended that meloxicam be introduced as rapidly as possible across the Indian sub‐continent as an alternative to diclofenac.

Collapse of Asian vulture populations: risk of mortality from residues of the veterinary drug diclofenac in carcasses of treated cattle

TLDR
The tissues of cattle treated with diclofenac are a hazard to wild vultures that feed on an animal that dies within a few days after treatment, and withdrawal of the drug from veterinary use on animals whose carcasses may become available to scavenging vulture is recommended.

Diclofenac is toxic to the Himalayan Vulture Gyps himalayensis

TLDR
Experimental testing has established that diclofenac is toxic to four species of vultures in the genus Gyps, but information on the toxicity of dicL ofenac to other members of the genus is lacking.

The pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in vultures.

TLDR
The rapid metabolism of meloxicam in combination with a short duration of effect in the studied species Gyps vultures shown in this study makes it unlikely that the drug could accumulate, and confirms the safety of repeated exposure to mel toxicam in vulture of this genus.

Apparent tolerance of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to the non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drug diclofenac

TLDR
Differential sensitivity among avian species is a hallmark of cyclooxygenase‐2 inhibitors, and despite the tolerance of turkey vultures to diclofenac, additional studies in related scavenging species seem warranted.

Trends in the availability of the vulture-toxic drug, diclofenac, and other NSAIDs in South Asia, as revealed by covert pharmacy surveys

TLDR
The availability of diclofenac declined in all three countries, virtually disappearing from pharmacies in Nepal and Bangladesh, highlighting the advances made in these two countries to reduce this threat to vultures.

NSAIDs and scavenging birds: potential impacts beyond Asia's critically endangered vultures

TLDR
The relative safety of meloxicam supports other studies indicating the suitability of this NSAID to replace diclofenac in Asia, and suggests that the potential conservation impact of NSAIDs may extend beyond Gyps vultures and could be significant for New World vultURES.

Diclofenac residues in carcasses of domestic ungulates available to vultures in India.

...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 59 REFERENCES

Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of vulture population declines across the Indian subcontinent

TLDR
It is recommended that urgent action is taken in the range states of the three currently threatened vulture species to prevent the exposure of vultures to livestock carcasses contaminated with diclofenac.

Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent

TLDR
It is shown that a high proportion of Gyps bengalensis and G. indicus found dead or dying in a much larger area of India and Nepal also have residues of diclofenac and visceral gout, a post–mortem finding that is strongly associated with dic-of-enac contamination in both species, suggesting veterinary use of dIClofy is likely to have been the major cause of the rapid vulture population declines across the subcontinent.

Toxicity of diclofenac to Gyps vultures

TLDR
It is suggested that diclofenac is likely to be toxic to all eight Gyps species, and that G. africanus, which is phylogenetically close to G. bengalensis, would be a suitable surrogate for the safety testing of alternative drugs to diclotenac.

Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan

TLDR
Results are provided that directly correlate residues of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac with renal failure and renal failure in the Oriental white-backed vulture (OWBV) and it is proposed that residues of veterinary diclotenac are responsible for the OWBV decline.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in south africa and possible effects on vultures

TLDR
A research project, to determine whether South African vultures are equally susceptible to diclofenac and other NSAIDs, has recently been launched.

Catastrophic collapse of Indian white-backed Gyps bengalensis and long-billed Gyps indicus vulture populations

In 2000, we conducted a survey to quantify the declines in the populations of Gyps bengalensis and G. indicus across India since 1990–1993. Directly comparable data for the two periods were obtained

A Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Meloxicam and Ketoprofen following Oral Administration to Healthy Dogs

TLDR
There were differences between the disposition curves of the KTP enantiomers, confirming that the pharmacokinetics of KTP is enantioselective, and significant pharmacokinetic differences between MLX and KTP after therapeutic doses are indicated.

COMMITTEE FOR VETERINARY MEDICINAL PRODUCTS

1. Baquiloprim is a diaminopyrimidine derivative, acting as a dihydrofolate-reductase inhibitor. It acts synergistically with sulphonamides. Four formulations have been developed: one short acting

Comparative pharmacokinetics of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in five bird species.

  • K. BaertP. de Backer
  • Biology
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP
  • 2003
...