Removing pathogenic memories

  title={Removing pathogenic memories},
  author={Diego Centonze and Alberto Siracusano and Paolo Calabresi and Giorgio Bernardi},
  journal={Molecular Neurobiology},
Experimental research examining the neural bases of nondeclarative memory has offered intriguing insight into how functional and dysfunctional implicit learning affects the brain. Long-term modifications of synaptic transmission, in particular, are currently considered the most plausible mechanism underlying memory trace encoding and compulsions, addiction, anxiety, and phobias. Therefore, an effective psychotherapy must be directed to erase maladaptive implicit memories and aberrant synaptic… 
Reactivation of Recall-Induced Neurons in the Infralimbic Cortex and the Basolateral Amygdala After Remote Fear Memory Attenuation
It is shown—by cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity using fluorescence in situ hybridization—that such reactivation also occurs in the basolateral amygdala and the infralimbic cortex, two brain areas known to be involved in fear memory attenuation.
Molecular mechanisms of memory reconsolidation
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of reconsolidation could provide crucial insights into the dynamic aspects of normal mnemonic function and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by exceptionally strong and salient emotional memories.
On the resilience of remote traumatic memories against exposure therapy‐mediated attenuation
An overview of animal studies investigating treatment options for remote traumata in animal models and the findings of a recent study in mice showing that by combining exposure therapy‐like approaches with small molecule inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACis), even remote memories can be persistently attenuated.
The AIP Model of EMDR Therapy and Pathogenic Memories
The theory of pathogenic memories seems compatible to the AIP model of EMDR therapy, which offers strategies to effectively access and transmute these memories leading to amelioration or resolution of symptoms.
Reconsolidation of memory: A decade of debate
Modulation of naturalistic maladaptive memories using behavioural and pharmacological reconsolidation-interfering strategies: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical and ‘sub-clinical’ studies
Modification of naturalistic maladaptive memories during reconsolidation appears to be a viable treatment strategy for substance use and phobias/trauma disorders, but high levels of heterogeneity and methodological variation limit the strength of conclusions that can be drawn from the reviewed studies.
The effect of postretrieval extinction of nicotine pavlovian memories in rats trained to self-administer nicotine.
Results show that the reactivation of nicotine-related Pavlovian memories may reduce the effect of renewal to exert nicotine-seeking, however, it appears that this effect is small in size and is not significantly different from CS-Extinction alone.
Reward and drugs of abuse


Memory consolidation of Pavlovian fear conditioning: a cellular and molecular perspective
Molecular bases of long-term memories: a question of persistence
  • Y. Dudai
  • Biology
    Current Opinion in Neurobiology
  • 2002
Synaptic plasticity and memory: an evaluation of the hypothesis.
It is concluded that a wealth of data support the notion that synaptic plasticity is necessary for learning and memory, but that little data currently supports the notion of sufficiency.
The endogenous cannabinoid system controls extinction of aversive memories
Treatment of wild-type mice with the CB1 antagonist SR141716A mimicked the phenotype of CB1-deficient mice, revealing that CB1 is required at the moment of memory extinction, and proposes that endocannabinoids facilitate extinction of aversive memories through their selective inhibitory effects on local inhibitory networks in the amygdala.
Extinction of fear-potentiated startle: blockade by infusion of an NMDA antagonist into the amygdala
The results show that infusion of the NMDA antagonist D,L-2- amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5) into the amygdala, a limbic structure known to be important for fear conditioning, dose-dependently blocked extinction of conditioned fear and suggest that an NMDA-dependent process might underlie the extinction of Conditioned fear.
Suppressing unwanted memories by executive control
It is shown that executive control processes not uniquely tied to trauma may provide a viable model for repression, and that this cognitive act has enduring consequences for the rejected memories.
Reconsolidation of memory after its reactivation
The Molecular Biology of Memory Storage: A Dialogue Between Genes and Synapses
This book aims to investigate elementary forms of learning and memory at a cellular molecular level—as specific molecular activities within identified nerve cells withinidentified nerve cells.
Progress in Understanding the Factors Regulating Reversibility of Long-term Potentiation
The recent data concerning putative depotentiation mechanisms and the implications of this phenomenon in the mechanisms of "forgetting" are summarized, and the prevention of saturation of the storage capacity of a neuronal network is discussed.