Removal mechanisms of 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol in membrane bioreactors.

@article{Yang2012RemovalMO,
  title={Removal mechanisms of 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol in membrane bioreactors.},
  author={Wenbo Yang and Haidong Zhou and Nazim Ciçek},
  journal={Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research},
  year={2012},
  volume={66 6},
  pages={1263-9}
}
The fate and behavior of natural and synthetic estrogens in wastewater treatment processes is currently of increasing concern all over the world. In this study, the removal mechanisms of a natural estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), and a synthetic estrogen, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were investigated in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with and without powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition. The experimental results showed that the average removal rates of E2 and EE2 by the MBR without PAC addition… CONTINUE READING