Removal characteristics of retinoic acids and 4-oxo-retinoic acids in wastewater by activated sludge treatment.


Retinoic acid (RA) receptor (RAR) agonists are potential teratogens to various vertebrates. Their contamination has been detected in municipal wastewater in different countries. This study involved field investigations and laboratory batch treatment experiments to elucidate the removal characteristics by activated sludge treatment of RAs (all-trans RA and… (More)
DOI: 10.2166/wst.2013.214


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