Removal and inactivation of botulinum toxins during production of drinking water from surface water

@article{Notermans2004RemovalAI,
  title={Removal and inactivation of botulinum toxins during production of drinking water from surface water},
  author={S. Notermans and A. Havelaar},
  journal={Antonie van Leeuwenhoek},
  year={2004},
  volume={46},
  pages={511-514}
}
Bottom mud of open raw water storage reservoirs in the Netherlands is highly contaminated with Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum types B, C, D and E have been found, the relative occurrence of types B and E increasing in recent years (Notermans et al., 1980). It may thus be expected that botulinum toxins are produced, contaminating the water to be used for drinking water production. Therefore, investigations were performed to examine the stability of botulinum toxins in different types of… Expand
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