Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblast proliferation through mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt.
Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis pitting oedema (RS3PE) is a distinct form of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis like polyarthritis. It is characterized by late onset symmetrical joint involvement and pitting oedema of hands and feet (JAMA 254(19):2763–2767, ). Polyarthritis secondary to intravesical Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) therapy has been reported (Clin Rheumatol 21:536–537, ). To our knowledge, about 0.5% of patients receiving BCG instillation presented polyarthritis, but only one case of RS3PE has been reported (J Rheumatol 28:1699–1701, ). We described the second case of RS3PE following intravesical BCG instillation of bladder carcinoma.